In 64 BC, the great Roman lawyer and orator Marcus Tullius Cicero ran for consul. His younger brother, Quintus, thought Marcus had a chance -- as long as he ran a good campaign. So Quintus wrote a detailed strategy memo laying out just what Marcus needed to do to win. It’s the best guide to electioneering you’ll ever read, presented here with a commentary by the legendary political consultant James Carville.
Ronald Reagan giving his Acceptance Speech at the Republican National Convention, Detroit, Michigan, 1980. (Reagan Library)
While campaigning for the highest office in the land, presidential hopefuls and their advisers have turned to Foreign Affairs to publish essays laying out how they see the world. Here is a collection of those articles, grouped by election year.
Including Aaron L. Friedberg, a foreign policy adviser to Mitt Romney, the presumptive Republican nominee for president; Michèle Flournoy, co-founder of the Center for a New American Security; Janine Davidson, professor at George Mason University; and Jim Lindsay, senior vice president and director of studies at the Council on Foreign Relations
Including Barack Obama, John Edwards, Hillary Rodham Clinton, and Bill Richardson, then candidates for the Democratic presidential nomination; and Mitt Romney, Rudolph W. Giuliani, John McCain, and Michael D. Huckabee, then candidates for the Republican presidential nomination.
Including Madeleine K. Albright, then head of Albright Stonebridge Group; Colin L. Powell, then U.S. secretary of state; and Samuel R. Berger, then chair of Stonebridge International.
Including Condoleezza Rice and Robert B. Zoellick, then foreign policy advisers to George W. Bush, Republican nominee for president; and W. Bowman Cutter, Joan Spero, and Laura D’Andrea Tyson, then economic policy advisers to Al Gore, Democratic nominee for president.
Including Lee H. Hamilton, then a Democratic representative from Indiana; James A. Leach, then a Republican representative from Ohio; and Theodore C. Sorensen, then a senior partner at Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison.
Including Richard G. Lugar, Republican senator from Illinois; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., an American historian; George McGovern, then a fellow at the Institute for Policy Studies; Richard M. Nixon, the 37th president; and more.
Including Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., an American historian; Henry A. Grunwald, then editor in chief of Time; Coral Bell, then a fellow at the Australian National University; Leslie H. Gelb, then national security correspondent for The New York Times; Anthony Lake, then a professor at Mount Holyoke College; and Norman Podhoretz, editor of Commentary.
Including Walter F. Mondale, then a Democratic senator from Minnesota.
Including John V. Lindsay, then mayor of New York.
Including McGeorge Bundy, then president of the Ford Foundation; Richard M. Nixon, the 1968 Republican nominee for president; and Nelson A. Rockefeller, then governor of New York.
Including McGeorge Bundy, then national security adviser; Sargent Shriver, then an activist and the director of the Peace Corps; and Hubert H. Humphrey, the 1964 Democratic nominee for vice president.
Including John F. Kennedy, the 1960 Democratic nominee for president; Hubert H. Humphrey, then a Democratic senator from Minnesota; and Adlai E. Stevenson, the 1952 and 1956 Democratic nominee for president.
Including Dexter Perkins, then a professor of history at Rochester University.
Including John Foster Dulles, then special representative in charge of negotiating the Japanese peace treaty; Adlai E. Stevenson, the 1952 Democratic nominee for president; and McGeorge Bundy, then a professor in Harvard’s Department of Government.
Including John J. McCloy, then assistant secretary of war; Henry Stimson, secretary of war to Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman; Joseph Barnes, then the foreign editor of the New York Herald Tribune; and Eleanor Roosevelt, then U.S. member of the UN Commission on Human Rights.
Including Wendell L. Willkie, the 1940 Republican nominee for president.
Including Newton D. Baker, a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration of The Hague, and Norman Thomas, the 1936 Socialist nominee for president.
Including John W. Davis, the 1924 Democratic nominee for president; George W. Wickersham, attorney general under President William Howard Taft; and Edward M. House, then a member of the American Commission to Negotiate Peace.
Including Ogden Mills, then undersecretary of the treasury, and Franklin D. Roosevelt, the 1928 Democratic nominee for vice president.
Including George W. Wickersham, attorney general under President William Howard Taft; Henry Cabot Lodge, then Senate majority leader; Norman Davis, then a U.S. diplomat; Theodore E. Burton, then a Republican senator from Ohio and the keynote speaker at the 1924 Republican convention; and more.