No backsies: Gorbachev and Bush at the White House, June 1990. (AP / Ron Edmonds)
Moscow has long argued that in expanding NATO eastward, Washington broke the promise it made to Soviet leaders shortly after the Berlin wall fell. But new evidence shows that the United States never actually made such a pledge.
As Arab governments become increasingly authoritarian, the region's middle classes will confront a choice: cast their lot with the ruling elites or stand up to the government and risk their social and economic standing.