Rwanda

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Interview,
Paul Kagame

Rwanda's president speaks with Foreign Affairs about the 1994 genocide, his 11-year stint in office, and his country's political future.

Essay,
Swanee Hunt

It would be obscene to say that the genocide in Rwanda had even the thinnest silver lining. But it did create a natural -- or unnatural -- experiment, as the country’s social, economic, and political institutions were wiped out. In important respects, the reconstructed Rwanda is a dramatically different country, especially for women.

Snapshot,
Peter Eichstaedt

Bans on conflict minerals mined in DRC were supposed to help pacify the region, which has been torn by fights over control of lucrative mines. Instead, they have made militias such as M23, which captured and then lost the eastern Congolese city of Goma this month, more desperate and violent.

Letter From,
Michael J. Kavanagh

Rwandan troops have pulled out of eastern Congo. Will peace fill the vacuum they left behind, or is a new front in a long war on the horizon?

Review Essay, May/Jun 2001
Jeffrey Herbst

Seven years after more than 500,000 Tutsi were massacred in Rwanda, the world still cannot explain why. Mahmood Mamdani's When Victims Become Killers is a rich history of Hutu and Tutsi identity, but how it applies to the genocide is unclear.

Response, May/Jun 2000
Alison L. Des Forges and Alan J. Kuperman

Alan J. Kuperman plays word games to rationalize the West's ignominious failure to halt genocide in Rwanda, writes Alison L. Des Forges. Kuperman responds.

Essay, Jan/Feb 2000
Alan J. Kuperman

Advocates of humanitarian intervention often claim that 5,000 U.N. troops alone could have staved off the Rwandan genocide in 1994. But a more realistic appraisal suggests that an intervention of any size would have required much more time and logistical planning than most proponents care to admit. Given the genocide's terrifying pace, even a major mission by the West could have saved only a fraction of the ultimate victims. Herewith a reassessment of the limits of intervention.

Essay, Mar/Apr 1998
Dan Connell and Frank Smyth

Once the playground of tyrants like Uganda's Idi Amin, Ethiopia's Mengistu Haile Mariam, and Zaire's Mobutu Sese Seko, Africa is finally shedding its postcolonial heritage of despotism and chaos. In Uganda, Rwanda, Ethiopia, and Eritrea, a new generation of nationalist leaders with strong and disciplined armies is emerging to take control of the continent. Their fights against the old foreign-supported order have left them suspicious of anything that comes from abroad, especially from France. Still, they are far more accountable and egalitarian than their predecessors-and they want to get into the United States' good books.

Essay, Sep/Oct 1994
Stephen D. Goose and Frank Smyth

Rwanda is only the latest example of what happens when small arms and light weapons are freely sold to countries plagued by ethnic, religious, and nationalist strife. These weapons cause the most death and destruction in local wars and are closely tied to human rights abuses and other violations of international law. Yet the world has focused predominantly on controlling the proliferation of major weapon systems. It is time to establish a viable mechanism to monitor and control small arms transfers. The United States should take the lead in this difficult but increasingly urgent task.

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