Europe

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Postscript,
Stathis N. Kalyvas

Talk of overturning austerity aside, Greece still needs the last 7.2 billion euro installment of the bailout to cover its financing gap. For the time being, then, the new government will need to abide by the program’s requirements—that is, the very combination of austerity and reform that Syriza has pledged to overturn. This may be enough to break the party.

Snapshot,
Jonathan Laurence

Although the absolutism of French republican ideals has inspired democracies worldwide for centuries, it has only been France's gradual adjustment of those ideals to social and demographic realities—first to its Jewish population and in the future, perhaps, to the Muslim community or to the right—that afforded the country lasting political stability.

Snapshot,
Paul Hockenos

Before the bloodshed in Paris, Pegida and its variants across the country, which oppose the “Islamization of Christian Europe” and Germany’s “foreign infiltration,” were faltering. No longer.

Snapshot,
Robin Simcox

Recent history has shown that there will always be a new jihadist cause. If it is not France’s involvement in Libya in 2011, then it is its invasion of Mali in January 2013; if it is not foreign policy, it is domestic; if it is not banning head scarves in public, it is drawing insulting cartoons. That is why, even as governments look to the recent attacks for lessons, they cannot allow them to dictate policies.

Snapshot,
Jytte Klausen

The death toll makes this week’s attack the most significant on French soil since the Nazi occupation—a huge milestone in al Qaeda’s campaign against the West.

Snapshot,
Nick Danforth

Erdogan recently declared that, starting immediately, Turkish students would begin studying the Ottoman language in school. But for anyone who has ever struggled to learn the notoriously difficult Ottoman language—sometimes described as a practical joke played on historians—forcing it on a generation of schoolchildren might be the quickest way for Erdogan to destroy his popularity (and the Ottoman Empire’s as well).

Comment, Jan/Feb 2015
Mariana Mazzucato

Conventional wisdom says the state can best foster innovation by just getting out of the way. In fact, government has historically served not as a meddler in the private sector but as a key booster of it—and often a daring one, willing to take risks that businesses won’t.

Interview, Jan/Feb 2015
Niklas Zennstrom

Niklas Zennstrom, founder of Skype, talks to Foreign Affairs about the sharing economy, why start-ups are thriving in Europe, and how technology can address climate change.

Snapshot,
Petr Polak

An energy union might give Europe more leverage over Russia’s gas monopoly, but it will also be difficult to implement without setting off a diplomatic energy battle between Poland and Germany.

Snapshot,
Arthur Goldhammer

Nicolas Sarkozy has just been elected head of UMP, the party he led before becoming president. Sarkozy hopes that the victory will give him a leg up in the battle to become France’s next president in 2017.

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