GHW Bush Administration

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Joshua R. Itzkowitz Shifrinson

Russian leaders often claim the United States reneged on a promise not to expand NATO after the Cold War. They aren't lying: although Washington never put a pledge in writing, U.S. officials worked hard to convince Moscow that NATO wouldn't move east. And in international politics, informal commitments count.

Brendan Simms

Margaret Thatcher re-established the United Kingdom as a major force on the international scene. But she failed to see that the best hope for Europe's future was integration.

Review Essay, Nov/Dec 2009
Philip D. Zelikow

Twenty years after the revolutions of 1989 brought down communism in Eastern Europe, a fresh crop of books attempts to unpack this epic story. The story these books tell is more of a civil war within the elite than of a revolt from below.

Essay, Jul/Aug 2012
Amatzia Baram

Debates about the possibility of containing a nuclear Iran often hinge on judgments of whether the regime there is rational. But as a wealth of recently released Iraqi documents about Saddam Hussein’s tumultuous reign in Iraq show, even an arguably rational leader can be unreasonable -- and very hard to deter.

Essay, Sep/Oct 2010
Robert Malley and Peter Harling

With protests raging across the Middle East, how should Washington respond? In an essay from the September/October issue, Robert Malley and Peter Harling argue that the Obama administration must recognize that there is not a clean divide between a moderate pro-American camp and an extremist militant axis.

Essay, Jul/Aug 2004
George A. Lopez and David Cortright

The failure to find weapons of mass destruction in Iraq has prompted much handwringing over the problems with prewar intelligence. Too little attention has been paid, however, to the flip slide of the picture: that the much-maligned UN-enforced sanctions regime actually worked. Contrary to what critics have said, we now know that containment helped destroy Saddam Hussein's war machine and his capacity to produce weapons.

Review Essay, Sep/Oct 2003
Robert M. Hathaway

A new book sees the troubled U.S.-China relationship of the 1990s growing as much out of domestic politics on both sides as out of overarching strategic considerations.

Review Essay, Nov/Dec 2001
Michael Hirsh

David Halberstam's latest book describes the impossible job of the American president in the late 1990s: trying to hold together the international order while governing a complacent country with little interest in the outside world.

Comment, Jan/Feb 1999
Charles William Maynes

The West botched the post-Cold War era by overestimating the power of markets, misreading ethnic conflicts, and relying on outmoded military doctrines.

Review Essay, Nov/Dec 1998
Michael Howard

George Bush and Brent Scowcroft's Oval Office memoir shows how Bush's genius for friendship and gentlemanly instincts helped usher out the Cold War.

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