JUST as the world's millions of years show in the layers of rose, grey and violet rocks of the Grand Canyon, so the history of the past twenty years shows in one generation of refugees after another. These generations of refugees represent the politics that failed.
This new and widespread migration is comparable in size and extent only to the great displacement that took place in the fourth and fifth centuries, when Asiatic peoples began pressing the Germanic tribes southward into the Roman Empire. Apparently we must now accept it as a recurring factor in international politics. A number of states have been driving out quantities of their citizens because they hold political views opposed to those of the government or because they are of a different race from the national majority. In many cases they have not expelled these citizens directly; but by moral, political and economic pressure they have succeeded in making life intolerable for them and compelled them to take refuge abroad.
Since the end of the war 1,500,000 Russians have fled from Soviet Russia, 1,500,000 Greeks from Anatolia and the Turkish provinces, 350,000 Armenians from Asia Minor, 120,000 Bulgarians from Greece, 25,000 Assyrians from Iraq, 115,000 Germans from Germany and 8,000 more from the Saar. These figures add up to about four million. Unquestionably that is less than the actual number, for some groups of refugees are omitted altogether: for instance, the Hungarians who fled before the red terror and the Hungarians who fled before the white terror, the Italians who fled before Mussolini, the Spaniards who fled before Primo de Rivera and the Spaniards who fled before the Republic. Furthermore, statistics about the new migration are bound to be incomplete. The countries of origin understate the number of their refugees, out of regard for the sensibilities of a humanitarian world; and the countries that receive them do not bother to keep exact statistics as to their number and economic status.
Moreover, the League of Nations agencies designated to help the refugees give such
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