Where Is Russia’s Strongman in the Coronavirus Crisis?
Putin Lets Local Leaders Take the Credit and the Fall
Economic success in today’s world requires countries to liberalize to attract mobile international investment, which goes far to determine the distribution of global production, jobs, profits, and technology. Success also requires countries to compete effectively in international markets rather than simply at home. A process of competitive liberalization, therefore, has driven the trend toward free trade among a myriad of countries in all parts of the world with very different economic systems, at very different stages of development, and with very different prior philosophies.
Interstate arrangements are usually necessary to implement such liberalization, however, because domestic political opposition frequently blocks countries from abolishing their traditional barriers unilaterally. Entrenched interests fight hard, and often with prolonged success, to maintain their protected positions. Trade reform thus requires mobilizing enough pro-trade interests, especially exporters and others who would gain directly from the opening of markets abroad, to overcome those who resist further