Feminists have long argued that it is wrong to ignore half the population when crafting policies meant to secure a stable world order. Now foreign policy experts are beginning to grasp a different point: a "gender perspective" is relevant not only to those concerned with making the world better for women, but also to anybody who cares about military effectiveness, alliance stability, democracy promotion, actionable intelligence, the stem of pandemic disease, or successful nation building. The following sources are essential reading for anyone interested in the connections between gender relations -- norms and assumptions about men and women, masculinity and femininity -- and the practice of foreign policy.
Offering a trenchant critique of gender-based violence and repression of women in the developing world, Nicholas Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn argue not only that oppression of women is wrong but that developing countries are hampering their economic growth by holding back half of their citizenry. Evidence shows that education and economic opportunities for girls and women are crucial factors in population reduction, which is a key variable influencing economic stability and growth. The book is replete with anecdotes and insights about how to combat the oppression of women in the developing world as well as the indifference to this pressing global issue in the developed world.
Feminist peace activists and conservatives keen on keeping women out of the military disagree on many things, but they share a common belief: that women are naturally less aggressive than men. Although women (like many men) are active in peace movements, it is misleading to assume that they are incapable of violence or that their presence will serve to "civilize" their male counterparts in political institutions. In this heart-wrenching account of female participation in sexual violence and torture in Abu Ghraib, Tara McKelvey and her collaborators encourage us to reconsider the notion of women as "inherently peaceful." Instead, the authors argue, what must be rethought is the devaluation of attributes associated with "womanliness" -- caring, empathy, and connectedness. Research has shown that both men and women value these characteristics less than they do tough-mindedness, rationality, and independence. Contributors to this volume document the consequences of foreign policy institutions that incentivize the latter at the expense of the former, and urge a careful rethinking that does not itself rely on simplistic gender stereotypes.
Joshua Goldstein, a seasoned international security scholar, has compiled, sorted, and analyzed evidence for and against a long list of hypotheses about war and gender drawn from evolutionary biology and feminist theory. His scientific overview demonstrates the links between gender inequality and war and shows that gender differences are not "bred into bone," as Francis Fukuyama asserts, but result from cultural beliefs that then influence human physique. His chapters provide systematic evidence for the different status men and women hold in institutions dealing with war and peace, the gendered cultural constructions that sustain these disparities, and the political implications that follow. But more important, Goldstein's research confirms a key insight: gendered language and assumptions impact relationships among men as much as they disadvantage women. Goldstein cautions that in some ways culture may prove harder to change than biology -- a word of wisdom to those aiming to export a feminist agenda to the developing world. He argues, however, that gender dynamics are a crucial variable in foreign policy. Rather than simply being part of a "feminist agenda," they underpin the entire system of war and peace. Sound foreign policy-making requires a careful acknowledgment of these dynamics.
Cynthia Enloe's work on civil-military relations and the political economy of national defense demonstrates how security-related decisions seemingly removed from the needs of ordinary people are in fact contingent on elaborate social arrangements implicating women, men, and configurations of gender norms at all levels of society. Writing about topics as diverse as the fashion and toy industries, military recruiting in high schools, the importance of diplomatic wives in alliance maintenance, and the roles of civilian men and women in munitions factories, Enloe draws connections between security policy and the politics of everyday life. Her work teaches us that understanding international security requires "the ability to read budgets and interpret bureaucratic euphemisms, but also to understand the dynamics of memory, marriage, hero-worship, cinematic imagery, and economies of commercialized sex." And her insights connect to current policy debates over veterans' benefits, defense expenditures, and winning hearts and minds in U.S. strongholds throughout the world.
UN member states frequently deploy soldiers trained to kill (an activity traditionally associated with masculinity) to conflict zones where they are expected to keep the peace (an activity conventionally associated with femininity). Some of these same soldiers sent ostensibly to protect women and children have preyed on civilians, undermining the stability and support operations they are meant to assist, the image of their governments abroad, and the international institutions they serve. Aside from the obvious human rights dimensions of these issues, there are important implications for the effectiveness of such international missions. The insertion of international forces into conflict zones displaces local economies, puts outsiders with greater financial resources and moral authority in competition with local males for women and status, and introduces a set of gender norms often perceived as culturally inauthentic. In order for initiatives designed to support sustainable governance to be successful, they must be attuned to the gendered trade-offs associated with different nation-building strategies. This hard-hitting set of chapters from academics and practitioners -- covering peace negotiations, judicial machinery, electoral reform, and bureaucratic staffing -- provides both detailed analysis of gendered stability operations and recipes for saner peacekeeping policy.
Approximately 160 million females go missing each year -- aborted while in the womb, killed at birth, or dead early due to food discrimination, lack of health care, and family violence. Their disappearance is largely due to a preference for sons in the world's most populous countries, China and India. This is not only a problem for women and girls, as Valerie Hudson and Andrea den Boer explain, but for regional security in Asia and beyond. Missing daughters lead to a demographic disproportion of young men in such countries, whose inability to marry and socialize into "normal" society has historically become a threat to states with such high sex ratios. Governments have typically dealt with these "bare branches" through domestic repression (shown to increase bellicosity against one's neighbors) or by sending surplus males on military campaigns abroad. Hudson and den Boer draw on numerous historical cases and statistical data to sketch the causal links between the "proliferation of small men" and the aggression of powerful governments. They conclude with policy recommendations for both regional and global powers, and encourage foreign policy experts to pay more attention to the gender dynamics underlying demographic patterns and regional stability.