How Russia Decides to Go Nuclear
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AFRICA is a continent 11,263,000 square miles in extent, situated more than any other great stretch of land within favorable latitudes. Yet it has a population estimated at only about 126,500,000. Contrast with these figures the totals for Asia, North America and Europe. Asia, with an area of 16,819,000 square miles, is peopled by some 825,000,000. These, however, occupy only about half the continent; the northern half, largely desert or else still lying within an ice age, has not more than 25,000,000 inhabitants. North America, down to the Panama Canal (about 8,000,000 square miles in area), prior to British, French and Spanish discovery probably contained no more than 10,000,000 people, as against 128,000,000 today. Europe with only 3,791,000 square miles has at the present day a population of approximately 400,000,000.
The peoples of Africa in the far geological past do not seem to have included any half-human form, any midway connecting link between the great apes and the ancestors of Man. Humanity seems to have been evolved in Asia. Yet the anthropoid stem apparently became differentiated from the monkey and baboon stock in the valley of the lower Nile during the Oligocene period. But it was seemingly in India, in the vicinity of the unrisen Himalaya, that the small, primeval anthropoid apes developed larger forms, as well as the smaller specialized gibbons. This bigger type, of which the orang, chimpanzi, and gorilla are living survivors, came into existence somewhere in southwestern Asia. Several of their genera wandered thence into Europe and died out a million years ago; the orang penetrated eastward as far as Borneo; the chimpanzi and and the gorilla passed up the Nile valley into equatorial Africa, whence the chimpanzi penetrated finally into western-most Africa and its mighty forests. There are some slight indications, even, of a very human-like ape[i]--something not far off from the parent type of Man--having wandered far to the east in pre-glacial Northern Asia, and there crossed, like so many other Asiatic mammals, into North America, where it pushed as far eastward as Nebraska. In Asia itself forms midway in development between the ape and Man[ii] penetrated as far to the southeast as Java; and some creature nearer to the human progenitor[iii] passed in the northwest across Europe to southern England (when no English Channel made England an island) and left a precious testimony of its existence in the county of Sussex. But in Mediterranean Europe a form of true humanity came into existence--Neanderthal Man--which is not of our species, yet rather doubtfully is defined as of our genus. The earliest example of Neanderthal Man as yet discovered has been found in the Mauer sands of a cliff near Heidelberg; another skull of unknown age was discovered in a cave at Gibraltar; other specimens, some of them as recent as the middle Pleistocene, have come from France, Belgium, Jersey, the Rhine Valley, and Austria.
But in this connection one of the most interesting finds was made two years ago in Africa itself, in the central part of Northern Rhodesia, in the Broken Hill mine. Here, at a depth of about sixty feet from the outside level, was discovered the skull of a big man, some six feet in height, with a very gorilla-like face and projecting brows. It is a human type utterly unlike the Negro, offering a good deal of resemblance to the Neanderthal Man of Europe and some approximation to the Australian variant of Homo sapiens, the black Australoid. The Broken Hill Man has been named Homo rhodesiensis. There are some slight indications that the range of this type may have extended in ancient times as far south as Cape Colony; and there is also the possibility of its range being traced to North Africa, where it may fuse with the southern examples of the Neanderthal species. Its resemblance to the Australoids may simply indicate that the big-browed Man of Central Africa branched off in the Mediterranean basin from a primitive human stock which was near the foundation of the sapiens species.
So we see that the earliest type of African with which we have become acquainted was not a Negro of any type, but a being closely related to the brutal-looking Neanderthal species.
The Negro once frequented the shores of the Mediterranean--say, thirty thousand years ago. He has left skulls and limb bones on the Riviera and in Algeria; he was an inhabitant at this period of Italy, Egypt, Syria, and South Persia; and exists to the present day in a modified and slightly altered type in southern India, in the Malay Peninsula, in Sumatra (not in Borneo, curiously enough), in the Philippines, in most of the eastern islands of the Malay Archipelago, in New Guinea and in the western Pacific islands. The westward surge of the first White people from Asia into North Africa (and strongly into Europe) pushed the Negro southwards across the Sahara,--before it had reached its present sterile condition,--and up the Nile valley. From the Niger southwards, all West Africa, the Sudan, the regions of the Bahr-al-ghazal and the Upper Nile, East Africa, the Congo Basin, and the shores of the Great Lakes became a Negro country; and Neanderthal Man--Homo rhodesiensis--was wiped out by his more intelligent successors. In the forefront of these latter was the Bushman type. From this and that relic of evidence found in French and Spanish caverns, in Italy and in Algeria, we can surmise that something like the Bushman lived many thousands of years ago on the Mediterranean coastlands and in Egypt. He seems to have made his way southwards up the valley of the Nile; and from East Africa (where he has apparently left a few survivors, the Kindiga, speaking "click" languages) he made his way outside the densely forested area of ancient Central Africa, through Moçambique, across the Zambezi into the great open spaces of South Africa. Mingling with the more northern Negro groups, and even, it is surmised, with beetling-browed Homo rhodesiensis, he left behind him hybrids known to us as Hottentots and Korannas.
The Bushman and the Hottentot hybrids have certain physical peculiarities and specializations; but they are Negroes. The Negroes of various sub-species in Africa at the present day number some ninety or ninety-one millions. Over ninety millions are of the average Negro type and of fairly tall stature. The remaining Congo Pygmies, inhabiting the forests of the Congo region and the Cameroons, might be guessed as numbering three or four hundred thousand. These Pygmies have no near relationship with the Bushman-Hottentot. They differ chiefly from the average Negro type in being hairy-bodied, short in lower limbs and in stature (well under five feet), with noses excessively flat and broad. In the typical examples the nostrils are almost as much elevated as the bridge and tip of the nose. The Bushman, Hottentots, and Korannas at the present day do not total more than one hundred thousand. Though they possess a few well marked peculiarities, they vary (as do the Hottentots) very much in head aspect. Most of them have little or no prominence of brow; but a few offer such reverse evidence--eyes set under prominent frowning brows--as to suggest that the gorilla-like Homo rhodesiensis may have been near enough to the primitive forms of Homo sapiens to have occasionally mixed his stock with that of the incoming Bushmen, twenty or thirty thousand years ago, and thus have left traces of his blood.
In the north of Africa, especially in the Mediterranean coast lands, we deal with a very different type,--the White subspecies of Homo sapiens. The "whiteness" of complexion, even the ruddy, brown, or yellowish head-hair of some examples, seems in a legendary way to be due to admixture since Roman times with incoming North European settlers like the Vandals, northern Italians, and French. It is more correct, possibly, to assume that in the main the peoples of northern and northeastern Africa belong to the Mediterranean, mainly long-headed, division of the White stock, of which the other two groups are the Nordic or blond Europeans and the round-headed Armenian or Alpine. The Mediterranean White race anciently indigenous to North and Northeast Africa has, with the exception of the Mediterranean fringe of North Africa, become a Brown race, brown or yellow in complexion. This darker color may be in part an ancient feature never shaken off, or it may be due in its intenser shades to an old intermixture with the Negro. These brown or olive-skinned people inhabit North Africa and Egypt, much of the Sahara and Libyian deserts, the desert fringe of northern Nigeria, Darfur, the middle Nile valley below the Sobat junction, the highlands of Abyssinia, Somaliland, Eritrea, and Galaland down to the verge of East Africa.
With the exception of two or three million Coptic Egyptians, ten or eleven millions of Abyssinians and Galla, and a few tribes of Nigerian Fula and of the equatorial Ba-hima, all these Brown peoples of northern and northeastern Africa are Mohammedan in religion, the date of their conversion ranging from the close of the seventh century down to the eighteenth. This, with other and more ancient causes, has ranged them racially against the rule and to some extent the influence of the White man coming from across the Mediterranean. This distrust of the European, this desire to repel his interference, began in Roman times before the acute difference arose between Christianity and Islam. It was pre-Islamic in its origin; but the advent of the Islamic Arabs, who so easily won Egypt, North Africa, and the Sahara, made the difference acute. Islam became the religion, almost racially, of the whitey-brown Mediterranean peoples, of the kindred Persians, of the Kurds, and of a proportion of the Armenian stock in Asia Minor. The Mohammedan religion spread over the northern third of Africa and armed the half-white Negroid (not Negro) peoples against the more-or-less Christian European; the latter, represented in native estimation three centuries ago chiefly by the fanatically Roman Catholic Spaniard, became an object of hatred to the Mohammedan Arab, Berber, and Egyptian. The Greeks played a curious part in this struggle. After the Turkish conquest of the Byzantine Empire a number of Greeks became Mohammedan, especially in Crete, and as conversion was the only preliminary required by the Turks in distributing naval or military commands, the Turkish Empire thus obtained the services of very intelligent Europeans in developing their conquests in North Africa. Similarly, Spanish renegades entered the service of Mohammedan Morocco; indeed, the Spanish Mohammedan, known generally by some form of the word "Ruma"--"the Roman"-- played a most noteworthy part in the Moorish conquests of Nigeria, and even, in his descendants, passed into the service of the Zanzibar Arabs when they warred with the Portuguese.
The only Christian elements remaining among the Brown inhabitants and conquerors of the northern third of Africa were the Copts of Egypt (never more than two and a half millions in number) and the Abyssinians. The Abyssinians, now nearly twelve million in number, called themselves "Christian," though their fetishistic religion was a parody of the Egyptian Christianity they adopted in their mountains in the fifth century. At the commencement of the sixteenth century they were being very hard pressed by Somali Mohammedans, and but for the alliance with the Portuguese might have been overcome and never more heard of as an independent people. In addition to these non-Mohammedan elements among the Brown peoples of Africa are the two or three hundred thousand pagan Fula in Nigeria, and nearly a million Galla of indefinite beliefs in the inner and northern parts of East Africa.
Some thirty millions of pure Negroes are also Mohammedans, principally in West and West Central Africa, in Darfur, Wadai, the Nile Valley, East, and Southeast Africa. But herein is a point of noteworthy difference between the Negro and the Negroid or whitey-brown man of Mediterranean type: whereas the Negro can be a Mohammedan in a good-natured, easy-going fashion, the Negroid or the Mediterranean Arabized type is almost always a fanatical follower of this Ishmaelite younger brother of the Jew and the Christian. The highest, whitest type of European or North American invading Africa nearly always gets on well with the Mohammedan Negro, respects him and likes him; but he finds it difficult, on the other hand, to work with the Mohammedan Libyan, Arab, or Hamite.
In estimating the potentialities of the population of Africa we must not leave out of account the races of recent European origin. Including the French of Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Egypt and West Africa, the Spanish of the Canary Islands, Morocco and Algeria, the Italians of Tunis, Tripoli and Eritrea, the Portuguese of West, West-central and Southeast Africa, the Belgians of the Congo, and the British, Germans, and Dutch of South Africa, the British of West Africa and Nigeria, the Sudan, East Africa, Rhodesia, and Nyasaland, these far-flung, modern European colonies and settlements may not number in counted individuals more than three millions, but they constitute at the present day the life-blood, the moving, creative force of Africa. They are directing--in most cases, plainly and openly, in a few instances, such as in Egypt, Abyssinia, and Liberia, more disguisedly--the progress, education, social life, sanitary measures, diet, clothing, and morals of the indigenous Brown peoples or of the Negroes and Negroids.
There is or there has been in the past much selfishness in the northern White man's motives in opening up Africa, and in his interference in the disorders of the Black man or the Brown.
The early Portuguese navigators, explorers, soldiers (intrinsically of northern origin in those days: descendants of Celtic, Latin, Gothic, Frankish stock) did not discover the African coasts and rivers out of pure love for knowledge and a desire to help the Negro recover his wide divergence from the White man. They came to Africa with a thirst for knowledge, but with such a desire for gain as made them for four centuries endeavor strenuously to conceal their discoveries from other white nations.
The Dutch, when they settled in South Africa between 1652 and 1795, did so with no sentimental interest in the Negro tribes. Except that they found them useful--essential, even, as the crude labor force in South Africa--they were perfectly cold, pitiless slave masters. A large proportion of these South African "Dutch" were really French Huguenot refugees from France in the eighteenth century. It is curious that whereas other Huguenot refugees in North America developed into some of the noblest anti-slavery champions, those that had thrown in their lot with the Boers in South Africa were as pitiless toward their slaves as their Dutch friends and fellow colonists.
The British arriving in South Africa at the close of the eighteenth century really came there to prevent the French from seizing the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch East India Company. This territory at the extremity of the continent was not in those days politically Dutch; it belonged to a Dutch Chartered Company, and had been colonized by Dutchmen, Flemings, French Huguenots, and a few Scotchmen in the service of the Chartered Company of the Dutch East Indies. At the Peace of Amiens in 1802 Great Britain surrendered the Cape of Good Hope to the Dutch Government, which forthwith annexed this little patch of Cape Colony to Holland. Three years afterwards--Holland having become part of the French Empire--Great Britain reoccupied the Cape, and a few years later definitely assumed possession of Cape Colony. In the peace negotiations after Waterloo, Great Britain valued Cape Colony at £6,000,000, and took this sum into account in assessing what Holland had to pay her in the general financial settlement, which brought about the return to the Netherlands of the Dutch East Indies. After 1815 the colonization of South Africa by British subjects proceeded at a great rate. Natal was soon occupied and annexed, and the British-descended colonists soon equalled the Dutch-speaking Boers in number and exceeded them in wealth and in a far-reaching genius for discovery. Missionaries arrived--Presbyterian, Congregationalist, Wesleyan, and eventually Anglican. The missionary movement led to the explorations of Moffat and Livingstone; and the genius of Livingstone permeated the southern third of Africa, leading to the discovery of the Zambezi, of the Lakes, large and small, and of the Congo Basin, the Cameroons, and East Africa. Livingstone's work led to the explorations of Burton and Speke, to the bringing of Sir John Kirk into East African affairs, the amazing journeys of Stanley and Joseph Thomson, the defeat of the slavetrading Arabs, and the creation of Rhodesia, British Central Africa and British East Africa. Britain in the early part of the nineteenth century abolished slavery throughout the British Empire, and devoted her energies to extirpating the slave-trade which was bringing much of Negro Africa to ruin and depopulation.
France had interested herself in the West African trade in slaves, gold dust and ivory as early as the fifteenth century, or even earlier, according to Norman traditions. In the seventeenth century she began to found stations in Senegambia and in the eighteenth toyed with the Christianizing and exploration of the Congo coast, with Madagascar, Egypt, and Abyssinia. In 1830, recovering from the exhaustion of Napoleonic times, she descended resolutely on Algeria and made this exasperating haunt of Turkish pirates a French possession. By 1870 her rule had extended from the frontiers of Morocco to those of Tunis. After her recovery from the German defeat in 1871, she turned all her expansive energies on African and Asiatic conquest and colonization. By the close of the nineteenth century and in the first four years of the twentieth she had built up an enormous "empire" in Africa, stretching from Algeria and Tunis over the Sahara desert to West Africa, Central Africa, and northern Congoland. Madagascar had become an exclusively French possession. What had been a vague fort or two, at the close of the second Napoleonic empire, became enlarged into French Somaliland, abutting on the revived Empire of Abyssinia.
Portugal, thanks mainly to the support and sympathy of Great Britain--deny it who may--had at the close of the nineteenth century recovered vigor and ambition, and reasserted herself as an African power. Livingstone and other British missionaries or travelers from South Africa, or British enterprise in Sierra Leone, forced her to reassert herself as ruler in Portuguese Guinea, in Angola, on the western Congo, in Moçambique and Zambezia, and at Delagoa Bay.
The Belgians, stimulated by the purse of King Leopold II and his projects in Central Africa after Stanley's discovery of the Congo course, gradually envisaged the idea of implanting Belgian rule in the Congo basin. In forty-three years, between 1879 and 1922, they had overrun and occupied nearly the whole of the Congo basin, covering a million square miles, only excepting such portions as were claimed by France to the north and northwest and Portugal on the southwest.
The Germans awoke to the idea of colonizing and absorbing some portion of Africa soon after the Franco-German War in 1871. Or it may be said they had done so earlier, towards the end of the sixties, when Prussia under Bismarck had become the mistress of Hanover and North Germany. A mission under Nachtigal was sent across the Sahara to Bornu, with presents from the King of Prussia; and Baron von der Decken a year or two previously went out to explore Kilimanjaro, which had been discovered in 1854 by a German missionary, Rebmann. Von der Decken cast hungry eyes on Zanzibar, already being Anglicized by Sir John Kirk. In 1884 united Germany made her pounce: on the Cameroons and Southwest Africa, and on the Zanzibar hinterland.
Spain made her views known soon after the opening of the twentieth century and had her desire gratified by the recognition through France, Germany and Britain of her claim to bring under her flag a large strip of the western Sahara and a small patch at Ifni in southern Morocco. A little later the same three powers recognized her claims to take under her administration the Rif country of northern Morocco, immediately opposite Spanish shores. Earlier still, in the nineteenth century, Great Britain had admitted Spain's claims--acquired from Portugal in the eighteenth century--to rule the island of Fernando Pó off western equatorial Africa; and dependent on this was the small area of the Muni River basin on the coast below the Cameroons, and the little island of Anno Bom.
Italy, disappointed of Tunis in 1881, had made up her mind thereafter to pounce on Tripoli and Cyrenaica, and had secured the acquiescence of France and Britain in this ambition. She allowed it to lie unfulfilled until 1911, when European Turkey was seen to be breaking up under Greek and Slav attacks. Over and above all these ambitions stood in the background Germany and Austria. Germany, yielding to France in Morocco, toyed with the idea (in the guise of an Austro-Hungarian Chartered Company) of engaging her energies in Tripoli. Italy, learning this, promptly went to war with Turkey on another pretext fatuously offered by the purblind Turk, and annexed the Turkish North African dominions between the borders of Tunis and Egypt.
The victory of the Allies in the Great War led to the expulsion of Germany from Africa, as a ruling power. But in South Africa some twenty thousand German colonists remain, under the British flag. Germany will probably never again rule on the African continent; but just as there are in the United States two or three millions of American citizens descended from German colonists, there will be a potent German element in the European descended population of South Africa. German names are imperishably connected with the sciences of Africa, with discoveries in its geography, zoölogy, and botany, with the development of its philology, with its mineralogy and with its commerce. In the fifties and sixties Germans of Württemberg like Krapf, Rebmann, and Mauch (the discoverer of Zimbabwe) were the first revealers of Africa's highest mountains--Kilimanjaro and Kenya--and of the mysterious stone buildings about the gold mines of Southeast Africa. Hermann von Wissmann was one of the greatest tracers of mighty rivers in the then unknown inner basin of the Congo. In later times, just before the Great War, other Germans made astounding discoveries in the fossil Tertiary forms of the Nile Valley, and the gigantic saurians of East Africa during the Cretaceous epoch. Probably in the near future their efforts will be renewed, but in community with the British, just as in North America the German settlers have thrown in their lot with men of English speech.
This, therefore, is the situation in the New Africa at the present day. In the extreme north, in the country of the Moors, which juts forward northwards into the Mediterranean between Tunis and Morocco, you have a land with a climate much like that of southern Europe, with a European vegetation and a fauna that is nowadays of European affinities. It is inhabited mainly by an Arab-Berber people, only a little darker in complexion than the people of southern Italy or southern Spain. But though they are at present strongly marked off from us by religious differences, being Mohammedans whereas we are more or less Christians, racial affinities and geographical proximity will tend to weaken their attachment to an Arabian religion.
And there are also in North Africa other agencies tending towards a stronger and stronger attachment to Europe. For one thing, the large Jewish population (perhaps two millions in number) tends more and more to side with the Christian rulers of these countries who have brought them enfranchisement, security and a great future in Mediterranean politics. Moreover, there are in Morocco about thirty thousand French settlers and some fifty thousand Spaniards. In Tunis there are said to be seventy thousand Italians, thirty thousand French, and about forty thousand Maltese. In the eastern half of Algeria there are perhaps another twenty thousand citizens of Maltese origin. Between Morocco and the frontiers of Tripoli there are perhaps three thousand English people--missionaries, merchants, men and women seeking a warm or mild climate, retired military or naval officers--few in numbers compared to the Latin-Europeans, but potent in many ways. Thus, all counted, there must be now--or there will be soon--a full million inhabitants and settlers of European origin in North Africa, between the Mediterranean and the Sahara, between Tripoli and the Atlantic coast of Morocco, and, in the same stretch of territory, fully two million Jews,--three millions, in all, of non-Mohammedans. The indigenous population of European-like Berbers, of Arabs, of descendants of Greeks and Romans (who have forgotten that their forefathers, many centuries ago, were Christian Greeks and Romans), of former Negro soldiers and slaves, Turks, and heterogeneous hybrids between all these stocks, may number at the present day some fourteen millions. Its increase under French rule or direction has nearly doubled in less than a hundred years. Morocco and Tunis have a considerable amount of "home-rule"; Algeria is governed very much like part of France; but, altogether, North Africa within the limits I have indicated is not likely to lapse into African independence. It will gradually be won back to the Europe with which in earlier times (perhaps not more than thirty thousand years ago) it was connected by two isthmuses, one across the Straits of Gibraltar, the other broader, more important, between Tunis, Malta, Sicily, and Italy.
The Italians will probably conserve a narrow coastal strip of Tripoli and a broader part of Cyrenaica which will provide homes for several thousand Italian immigrants; but I doubt their being able to detach the inner desert solitudes and scattered oases from an African connection and a future more concerned with the lot of the independent Brown peoples of Egypt, Abyssinia, the Sudan, and Mauretania. Eventual independence, preceded by self-government, will, I think, be the lot of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Somaliland, Uganda, Nigeria, and all West Africa, as also, later still, of the Congo Basin and Cameroons, of much of East Africa, Angola, Northern Moçambique, and of what I used to call "British Central Africa." But the eventuality will depend much on the growth of education and good sense among the Negroid and Negro peoples. Premature revolts among the native races against European teaching will postpone the granting of self-government. The growth of Mohammedanism among these populations will rather tend towards the maintenance of European control than hasten its departure.
South of the Zambezi and Kunene rivers a different state of things will certainly come about, fifty years, a hundred years from now. Here we shall see four great states grow up into a Union of South Africa larger than what subsists at the present day, a state in close confederation with the rest of the British Empire, but enjoying the same degree of independence as its component parts do today. The union of the four (the existing "Union" of South Africa, the former German territory of Southwest Africa, the Negro state of Bechuanaland, and Rhodesia) will be--will have to be--further strengthened by the taking over of the territory under the Portuguese flag south of the Lower Zambezi. Portugal never really made "Portuguese" (as she has done with Angola and Brazil) the coast lands of Southeast Africa, those that lie to the south of the Zambezi delta. She may be able to conserve the government and development of her large territory of the Moçambique coast, between Lake Nyasa and the Indian Ocean as far south as the Zambezi delta, but she will be wise if she realizes the inevitable trend of affairs and sells Southeast Africa to Rhodesia and the South African Union. She will still remain with over 200,000 square miles north of the Zambezi, in East Africa.
Trans-Zambezian Africa, thenceforth under a conjoint people of British-Boer-German origin, will grow into almost a parallel of the United States, with a large civilized and educated black population, but predominantly white in its government, education, wealth, ideals, and mastery over natural difficulties,--difficulties turned by persevering study and effort into foundation stones of success. There will have to be some readjustment of territories, against money compensation. The White nucleus of Trans-Zambezian Africa will have to be in the marvellous mountain country of Basutoland. This South African Switzerland is a territory of only some twelve thousand square miles. Its average altitude is about 6,000 feet above sea level, and its highest peaks, from which snow is rarely absent, are over 11,000 feet above sea level. Its peopling by the Basuto took place less than a hundred years ago. They were composed mainly of a Bechuana tribe of the southwest Transvaal stampeded by the immigration of Umsilikazi and his Amandebele Zulus (who afterwards settled in Matebele Land). The Basuto after they had settled down in the altitudes of Basutoland were attacked by British forces, but they managed to inflict several defeats on the British governor of Cape Colony and were eventually allowed to settle down. They now number half a million, but are growing restless in their mountain country. By degrees they may be paid to emigrate to open lands elsewhere in South Africa, leaving their country to become that for which it has always seemed destined, the Empire State of South Africa.
Essentially Negro Africa will then consist of the hot lands between the Zambezi on the south and the northern Sahara on the north. Exceptional stretches of high altitudes in Nyasaland, South Angola, Kikuyu, the Nandi country, the north of Tanganyika, the southern limits of the Congo basin, the mountains of the northwest Cameroons, the Bauchi plateau in Nigeria, a patch or two in the Tibesti mountains or in Darfur, may remain or may become a White man's land, inhabited chiefly by people of European descent engaged in special cultures of important value or skilled in mining or local manufactures; but in the main tropical Africa will be a land for the Negro, who has been accustoming himself for two or three hundred thousand years or more to bear its heat.
Even in South Africa--as in southeastern United States, the West Indies, and South America down to Brazil--the White man cannot exist without calling in the Negro to help him. He does not seem able, as in two-thirds of Australia, to do the rough field work, the digging in mines, the road-making, the hauling of stones and timber, the distribution of irrigation water. He could perhaps steel himself to face this labor, but as long as there is the Negro to be called in he prefers to employ him. Yet he is as touchy--the average "Afrikander"--about extending to the Bantu-speaking Negro (the pure-bred Hottentot and Bushmen are so diminishing in numbers and rising in museum interest as to be of little account as a social factor) the full recognition of citizenship, as ever were the "Southern" whites regarding the freed slaves after the Civil War. His great reluctance is understandable when you are out in South Africa, living as the White man lives there. Yet from what I have seen of Negro life in the southern United States, I think the Afrikander misapprehensions exaggerated, and conceive of a vast South Africa up to the Zambezi tenanted mainly by black and brown men in the lowlands and a white race on the highlands, all getting on together as well as they do in the United States, in the British West Indies, in Brazil, or in Ceylon.
Then comes the crucial question: "So you approve of miscegenation, of the production of mulatto peoples, mixed races between the Black and the White?" Well--no. I cannot say I approve of our losing our pink and white complexions and our position as highest race. I do not welcome the idea of the extreme types mingling and producing a hybrid, with the intelligence of the white man but (usually) without the physical fitness, the almost animal good looks of the Negro. Yet when the Negro mixes with the Hamite (Somali, Galla, Hima), the Arab or the Fula, the result is nearly always better than the pure-bred Negro. This is so apparent to the European--though he may not be able to give his reasons--that these Negroid hybrids almost invariably receive more considerate treatment at his hands. They are "Orientalized"; and very often it may be the Oriental costume they assume which in most cases incites the kindliness and respect on the White man's part. Again, the physique of such hybrids as those of the Negro with the Brown peoples is usually much better than that of the cross between a Black human being and a pure White of Nordic stock. I cannot help thinking that one solution, among others, for the eventual rectification of the Negro problem will be the unchecked miscegenation between the Black and the Brown, between the Negro peoples and the Brown Arabs, Egyptians, Hamites, Fula, and Hindus of North Africa and Southwest Asia.
[ii]Such as Pithecanthropus