Insurgency and Repression in Myanmar

From Communal to State Violence

A Rohingya girl wipes her eyes at a refugee camp in Teknaf, Bangladesh, February 2017. Mohammad Ponir Hossain / Reuters

Since October 9, 2016, 66,000 Rohingya, members of a Muslim minority in Buddhist-majority Myanmar, have fled Rakhine State in the country’s west and entered neighboring Bangladesh. They crossed the river separating the two countries on boats or by holding on to plastic containers—these ramshackle vessels and flimsy objects their best hope of reaching safety. The Rohingya have faced decades of persecution. Today, they are not fleeing Rakhine Buddhists, with whom they first clashed in May 2012. They are fleeing their own government. 

When Myanmar’s current leader, State Counselor Aung San Suu Kyi, led her National League for Democracy (NLD) to victory in the November 2015 elections, expectations were high for the country’s first civilian government since the 1960s. The winner of the Nobel Peace Prize for “her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights,” Aung San Suu Kyi declared after the election that the peace process between armed ethnic groups on Myanmar’s periphery and the state would be her government’s first priority. In a speech marking Independence Day in January 2016, she acknowledged that “[w]e can do nothing without peace in our country.”

Her government, however, has not applied the logic of peace to the situation in Rakhine State. A key NLD official, U Win Htein, stated shortly after the party’s victory that “we have other priorities” than the Rohingya. Indeed, the government continues to reject the use of the term “Rohingya,” which is perceived as an attempt to establish the community as one of Myanmar’s 135 officially recognized indigenous groups. Many in Myanmar regard the Rohingya as illegal immigrants from Bangladesh. An onerous 1982 Citizenship Law has the effect of denying the Rohingya citizenship. Without this, the Rohingya suffer some of the worst discrimination and abuse out of all the groups in the country.  


In June 2012, riots in Rakhine State led to violent clashes between the Rohingya and the Rakhine Buddhist communities, prompting the government to declare a state of emergency. In the almost five

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