Will Ukraine Wind Up Making Territorial Concessions to Russia?
Foreign Affairs Asks the Experts
The far north has been slow in joining the modern world. It is just three hundred years since the Hudson's Bay Company was granted a charter in London to "trade into Hudson's Bay" and the Muscovy Company had been active in northern Russia even earlier. Both were incidental dividends of the search for a practicable direct sea route from western Europe to the Orient This objective has still not been achieved, for there is as yet no normally operating international seaway either by way of the Northwest Passage across the top of North America or through the Northeast Passage north of the U.S.S.R., although the latter is used fairly regularly in summer by Soviet vessels. The 1969 voyage of the U.S. tanker Manhattan from the Atlantic to the north coast of Alaska and back dramatized the persisting need for such a short northerly passage. It also emphasized that ice, which made the route impassable for centuries, remains a formidable obstacle.
Contemporary activity in the North-particularly in the North American Arctic-renews the concerted assault on the region that has until now always failed. There are many who believe that the present attack cannot but succeed because the economic need is now urgent and the technology required has been mastered. This has of course yet to be demonstrated in commercial terms, and success may still elude us.
There are many possible definitions of the area loosely referred to as "The North." Best known but rarely accepted as satisfactory is that region lying north of the Arctic Circle, which parallels the equator at 66°30'N. latitude, about 1600 miles from the North Pole. The line has no particular meaning geographically except as marking the southerly limit of the midnight sun. Within the circle are lands as diverse as the ice-capped plateau of Greenland and the commercial soft-wood forests of northern Sweden. Seas well to the north of the Circle off western Norway are ice- free throughout the year, but in similar latitudes in East Greenland the waters are barely navigable even in midsummer, and are almost equally hazardous off Baffin Island.
A more useful limit to the North is that favored by climatologists who use the extent of summer as the primary criterion. Excluded from the Arctic by these definitions are those areas whose temperature for the warmest month rises above 50°F. (10°C.). The region enclosed by an isotherm linking all such places includes the whole of Greenland, Canada north of a diagonal line from the Labrador coast northwestward to the mouth of the Mackenzie River, the coastal areas of Alaska north of the Alaska Peninsula, and a comparable strip of northern Siberia and northern Europe. A notable feature is the relatively large area of northern Canada which is truly Arctic and the analogous narrow zone in northern U.S.S.R. Within this Arctic region, trees are absent; it is a land of tundra, rock and ice fields. Such a restricted definition of the North is too limiting for economic and political purposes, so in practice the margin lies farther south and includes extensive areas of boreal forests in, for example, Siberia and the Mackenzie Valley of Canada. From a practical point of view another physical line may be selected which can be defined precisely and shown clearly on maps, and which also has economic and developmental consequences. This is the southerly limit of "permafrost," a condition under which the ground a few feet beneath the surface does not thaw even at the height of summer. The depth to which the freeze extends varies and may be as great as 2,000 feet. Almost one-fifth of the earth's surface is subject to this condition, including much of Alaska and almost half of Canada and the U.S.S.R. Although unfamiliar to engineers and builders a generation ago, permafrost now plays a decisive part in much northern planning and is a critical factor in decisions now being made about conveyance of northern petroleum by pipeline.
In administrative terms there are no simple and clear definitions of the North. Much of southwestern Alaska has a mild, maritime climate and is far from being Arctic. Nevertheless, most of the state has undoubtedly a "northern" character. In Canada, there are two federally controlled territories-Yukon and the Northwest Territories, both lying north of the sixtieth parallel of latitude. The provinces of Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador also include significant northern sections. Greenland is administered as an Amt, or province, of Denmark, but has considerable local authority, more than does a territory in Canada. There is no specifically northern administrative unit in the U.S.S.R. nor has there been for more than 30 years. The whole of the North lies within the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic.
For a decade or more following World War II the northern sector of the globe took on the appearance of a highly sophisticated armed camp. Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union were sufficiently strained to assume the likelihood of bomber and later missile attacks by the most direct courses across the polar seas. As early as 1946 it seemed possible that United States military bases, or those operated jointly with Canada, might be located in the Canadian far north. They would have been complementary to the defense build-up then proceeding in Alaska-referred to some years later as "The Gibraltar of the Arctic." As matters turned out, no such defenses were established in Canada, the nearest such being the large base at Thule which came into use in the early 1950s. Joint U.S.- Canadian weather stations were opened, however, on the northern Canadian Arctic islands, and did not come under exclusive Canadian control until 1970. A direct consequence of Canada's location between the U.S.S.R. and the United States was construction (partly at U.S. expense and manned in part by that country) of a series of three interrelated, more or less parallel radar detection screens, the best known being the most northerly, the Distant Early Warning Line, lying close to the northern limit of the Canadian mainland. It also extended to the west across Alaska and eastward across Greenland. Subsequently the significance of the DEW Line declined and many of its minor links and intermediate stations were discontinued. The reduced fear of Soviet bomber attacks and the rise in significance of ballistic missiles called for a modified detection system which was limited to installations in Alaska and at Thule.
During the late sixties it became apparent that from the viewpoint of air power the Arctic no longer held strategic priority. Nevertheless it was learned as late as January 1968 that bombers armed with nuclear weapons were still being used on routine missions over the far north. The occasion was the near-calamitous accident to a B-52 bomber near Thule. This led to a Danish ruling that no planes carrying atomic weapons could fly through Greenland air space. The same is understood to apply to Canada. The Thule affair was caused by fire aboard a patrolling bomber which resulted in the plane and four bombs crashing on the sea ice not far from the Thule base. During the following eight months an international group of experts from the United States and Denmark took precautions to remove all trace of atomic contamination, which was particularly necessary because the local Eskimos depend upon hunting sea mammals for their livelihood. The accident brought home to the people of Greenland the hazardous consequences of their strategic location and strengthened public concern over the presence of defense installations in their midst. It also drew attention to the risks of pollution of sea water from atomic sources.
Apart from a few hundred defense personnel at Inuvik and Alert in Arctic Canada there has been a minimal display of military activity there in recent years. This has been in keeping with government policies since World War II to avoid as far as possible the use of northern Canada for offensive military purposes. Aircraft have continued to patrol the far northern skies using available airfields, but there has not been a specifically northern defense command. Following the review of Canada's foreign policy and defense obligations in 1969, which led to some reduction in commitments to Europe, there was a certain amount of public advocacy by defense specialists of a more active role for the military in the Canadian Arctic, usually advanced in terms of strengthening sovereignty in the area. The outcome seems likely to be limited to opening a regional task force group headquarters at Yellowknife, some increase in northern training for land forces, and an upgrading of the air patrol activity over northern coasts and waters. This may in fact be mainly an endeavor to relieve the United States of any continuing obligation that may exist for this kind of operation. There has been some public advocacy in the United States of a new northward-oriented defense policy in the light of a possible increase in commercial use of northern waters. It is most improbable that Canada will regard any stepped-up economic activity in the North as an excuse for undertaking or allowing others to undertake new military adventures there. Defense aside, the present attraction of northern Canada-and of northern Alaska and Greenland also-is due largely to the possibility of exploiting natural resources there. Added to this is a genuine concern for the welfare of the native peoples-Indian and Eskimo-who make up about half of the local population. There is a new-found urgency about preservation of the physical environment. Finally, Canadians appear determined to provide effective administration of the whole of their northland and to occupy it to the extent that seems necessary and practicable.
The search for resources has long been the driving force behind northern adventures. The Norse in Greenland sought timber on the Canadian side of Davis Strait, and a succession of Europeans came there for whales, seals and fish. The initial English occupation of northern Canada was a result of the fur trade. And fur proved until recently to be an adequate basis for the simple Eskimo economy under which semi-nomadic trappers traded through scattered posts. Today this is insufficient to support an acceptable living standard, even when supplemented by sale of stone carvings and other handicrafts. It may continue possible for small groups of Eskimos and Indians to eke out other income by drawing on fur, fish and game, but to most northerners such renewable resources will gradually become merely a support for recreation and occasional seasonal hunting. The rising population with growing demands for a higher living standard can no longer be thought of as an indigenous group dependent on the vagaries of nature. They are now well on the way to becoming an integral element in North America's industrialized society.
Fishing is another matter. It is well established in some high latitude areas including the Davis Strait banks off Greenland; in fact commercial fishing is now the main support of the whole Greenland population. Forestry and agriculture are out of the question in the true Arctic and somewhat marginal even within many miles of it. Although much of the subarctic forest of Siberia and northern Europe supports, as it does in Canada, a large-scale production of pulp, paper and sawn timber, equally good or better stands are available farther south.
If only for sociological reasons, farming is unlikely to keep pace with the rising demand for fresh food and dairy products by the growing northern population. Where a generation ago such produce was grown on the spot in the Mackenzie Valley and elsewhere in northern Canada where reasonably good soil existed, all food is now imported by truck or air. Most of the gardens of the Mackenzie, renowned among northern travelers, are no more. The reason is lack of gardeners, and the townsman's conviction that the store is the only place to obtain foodstuffs.
Fresh water is a renewable resource that is attracting increasing attention in the drier parts of North America where the supplies have been polluted or depleted. The landscape of much of the far north includes a rich variety of lakes, ponds and rivers and gives an impression of providing a reserve of water which might become available for use elsewhere. The impression is misleading. Precipitation over much of the North is low, although evaporation is also low and the permafrost beneath prevents the water from draining away. While information is still incomplete, it suggests that the northern water reserves can contribute little or nothing for export southward.
It is to the nonrenewable resources that government and industry are looking to provide an economic basis for northern development. There are minerals without doubt, possibly very extensive supplies indeed. They include many metals as well as oil and natural gas, and nonmetallic minerals such as sulphur and asbestos. The seemingly insatiable demand for such resources has at last brought an intensive search even to the most extreme corners of the North-including the Canadian Arctic islands and remote Peary Land in Greenland. The mining and petroleum industries which a generation ago mastered the world's deserts have now turned to the unfamiliar Arctic and seem likely to be as successful there. Occurrences of oil have nothing to do with the present distribution of world climates and there is no reason to believe that even the most frigid Arctic terrain may not in time become a production site. Finding the precise locations is largely a matter of accurate geological mapping and thorough geophysical prospecting, together with the command of adequate financial resources. It has long been recognized that the sedimentary basins known to exist in the North of Canada and Alaska would include oil.
Problems now facing the oil industries in the North are in part technical- location, drilling methods, transportation to external markets and so on. Lack of familiarity with the climate and terrain has already raised many problems which will have to be solved, and soon. Most of the ground where drilling takes place is tundra, devoid of trees and underlaid by permafrost. The sparse vegetation contrives to insulate the underlying permafrost from summer melting and it must be retained if the local ecological complex is not to be destroyed. Much of the surface is in summer so soft as to be impassable.
In a less-informed age the methods followed in extracting minerals were left largely to industry. Pollution of the air and local waters, disfigurement of the landscape by waste dumps and creation of ramshackle mining camps were the price to be paid for progress. There is now growing evidence of a change in attitude on the part of governments, spurred by an aroused public opinion. This is occurring not only in North America but also in the U.S.S.R. and in Greenland.
The government of Canada advanced plans in mid-1970 to apply land-use regulations in the North, appropriate to the conditions there. The new regulations which will amend the Territorial Lands Act are being based on an analysis by ecologists, geographers and other scientists of the special susceptibility of some types of surface to permanent damage. Thus once the Arctic tundra has been removed by excavation or altered by the movement of tracked vehicles or by activities incidental to mining, construction or oil drilling, it may remain scarred for generations. Growth is slow in the low temperatures, soils are deficient and the presence of permafrost accentuates the damage. Under the new regulations, all industrial and related activities affecting the natural environment will be licensed and the user held strictly to account for damage done to the land. The objective of the government as explained by the responsible Minister, Jean Chrétien, is "to gain the benefits which the North can provide without leaving a trail of waste and destruction behind."
Alaska is faced with comparable hazards from plans to build a road and pipeline from Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic coast to tidewater on the Gulf of Alaska. Conservationists and the experts of the U.S. Geological Survey are concerned about the consequences to the landscape of widespread destruction and the passage of enormous quantities of oil at temperatures of about 160°F. through the planned 48-inch pipeline. The U.S. National Environmental Policy Act is being cited as a possible constraint on the projects.
Public concern about conditions under which resources in northern Canada may be exploited extends far beyond the mere preservation of the physical environment. It is particularly evident with relation to petroleum. Any oil or gas produced in northern Canada will be available for export to overseas markets or the United States. The major oil companies now active in Canada are owned and controlled outside the country-in the United States or Western Europe. Hence the overall planning of their exploration and production activities tends to be made independently of Canadian national or local interests. While certain controls are possible at the national level, through Acts of Parliament or rulings of the National Energy Board, there is considerable public concern that the overwhelming proportion of the oil leases now being explored is held by non-Canadians. One interesting exception to this is a comparatively new company, Pan Arctic Oils Ltd., which is Canada-based and owned in the country-with 45 percent of the interest held by the government. There remains of course the ultimate control that all the lands now being explored for oil in northern Canada are Crown lands and disposable only under terms and conditions acceptable to the government. It should be emphasized that while the government of the Northwest Territories based at Yellowknife took over responsibility for most administrative matters on April 1, 1970, natural resources remain a significant exception still under the direct control of Ottawa.
Government concern over the wise use of northern resources is based in part on a desire to see that wealth and work derived from them shall bring some direct benefits to residents of the North, including the majority who are of native (Indian-Eskimo) origin. Long delays in providing adequate education and social services have meant that many local residents lack sufficient basic education to perform any but the most menial tasks. Even when taught specific mechanical or other skills they are still far from being really competitive on the local labor market. Government policies seek to guarantee a high proportion of local employment to northerners, and industries must formally ensure that this is done. However, almost all the more skilled jobs and all the professional tasks are performed by outsiders usually in the North only temporarily.
There has not arisen-at least in Canada-a formal claim on the part of Indians and Eskimos to ownership of any land where resources may be found. There are limited Indian reservations of which title belongs to the local occupants, but there have never been any Eskimo reservations or treaty arrangements concerning Eskimo lands. There is no particular reason why wealth from natural resources which may reach the Eskimos needs necessarily to be earned by them through manual or other labor. It is conceivable that some type of trust fund might be accumulated on their behalf from revenues derived from mineral royalties. Of course, very expensive school and social service facilities now made available reach the native people in effect free of charge.
The situation in Alaska is rather different; since settlement is not as sparse as in Canada, political awareness among the native peoples is more advanced, and the powers of the state are greater than those of a Canadian territory. The two situations, however, are bound to have repercussions on one another.
While public interest is at the moment focused particularly upon petroleum, metallic minerals are not unimportant and may in the future become really significant. The first gold mine was opened in the Northwest Territories as long as 30 years ago at Yellowknife and is still in production, along with several others in the same area. Nevertheless, there has been remarkably little activity in the intervening three decades, although exploration has gone on apace. A typical example of the slowness with which production may follow discovery is a lead and zinc mine a little south of Great Slave Lake at Pine Point. Known early in the present century, this mine has been in production for only a few years. It has already made very large profits based on extremely high-grade ore and has done so in the three-year tax- free period customary for new mines in Canada. The mine and concentrator, together with the newly built community, have not yet had a major impact on northern economics, since the final production of the metals from the ores is carried out by the parent company far away in British Columbia. This particular mine may well become a test case of the ability of northern industries to carry on their processing with minimum damage to the surrounding countryside and to house their staff in attractive and comfortable communities. Here as elsewhere in the North, the provision of the usual amenities of ample good water and the disposal of wastes provide a continuing challenge to technology.
Other new mining ventures in the Canadian North include the Anvil lead-zinc mine in a remote part of the Yukon and a new large asbestos development far off to the east in Arctic Quebec. However, the greatest challenge, apart from petroleum in the far north, is presented by a large and rich occurrence of iron ore in northern Baffin Island. This will call for quite elaborate local facilities and for shipping the product out through seas heavily infested with ice.
All these new industrial opportunities present the same problem-of creating, in relatively isolated parts of the North, satisfactory communities to house the technical and administrative staffs essential to modern business. Mining camps are no longer the answer; the need is for modern townsites, in contrast to the rather primitive accommodations still available to many Indians and Eskimos. As that sort of distinction can no longer be tolerated, the authorities are speeding the integration of northern groups into the new industrial society.
The early dependence of the North upon an economy based on wildlife-hunting and trapping-has left an interesting residue of conservation legislation going back many years. In effect, most of the Northwest Territories have for almost 40 years constituted a wildlife preserve within which strict game laws have been enforced. Maps showing the extent of this preserve indicate that its borders cover far more than the land itself, including waters between the Arctic islands and a good measure of the open ocean to the northwest and east of the islands. This legislation is particularly interesting in the light of recent Canadian action to avoid the risk of damaging wildlife or the physical environment through pollution involving both land and sea.
The new legislation, which seems certain of passage during the summer of 1970, is in a sense an extension of the earlier policies which date back to recommendations originating with the Royal Commission on Reindeer and Muskoxen of 1919. The essential distinction is that the newer enactments are enshrined in acts of the Canadian parliament rather than ordinances of the Northwest Territories. The 1970 legislation includes three distinct bills dealing with the matter-C 202, an act to prevent pollution of areas of the Arctic waters adjacent to the mainland and islands of the Canadian Arctic; C 203, an act to amend the Territorial Sea and Fishing Zones Act; and C 204, an act to amend the Fisheries Act. This legislation is interrelated with other antipollution measures such as "the Canada Water Act" and "the Northern Inland Waters Act."
For our immediate purpose it will be sufficient to comment on the two bills C 202 and C 203. The latter simply substitutes a 12-mile territorial sea for the three-mile one previously in effect. In doing so it utilizes methods of delineating the limits that were laid down in the Geneva Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone. As far as the Arctic is concerned, the new law effectively closes off the passages between the Arctic islands, so as to remove any doubt there may have been about their being Canadian waters. This effectively places all access to the Arctic Ocean through the Canadian Arctic islands under Canadian initiative. The apparent exception is M'Clure Strait at the western extremity of the Northwest Passage but it is in practice impassable to ships because of the enormous accumulation of Arctic ice that at all seasons of the year passes into it. The new legislation, which amends that passed in 1964, applies to all Canadian coasts the 12-mile seaward limit long adopted by many other countries, including the U.S.S.R.
Of far greater significance both in Canada and abroad are the provisions of bill C 202, which is specifically concerned with pollution control in the northern seas. The Preamble makes it clear that action is imperative because of "recent developments in relation to the exploitation of the natural resources of Arctic areas, including the natural resources of the Canadian Arctic and the transportation of those resources. . . ." It emphasizes Canada's obligation to see that exploitation of natural resources and navigation of the Arctic waters take "cognizance of Canada's responsibility for the welfare of the Eskimo and other inhabitants of the Canadian Arctic and the preservation of the peculiar ecological balance that now exists, in the water, ice and land areas of the Canadian Arctic." The legislation is thus consistent with and in a sense an extension of that which established the Arctic Islands Preserve in the 1920s.
Essential parts of the legislation define the "Arctic waters" to which new regulations are to apply as being limited by the sixtieth parallel of north latitude and the one hundred and forty-first meridian west (an extension of the Canada-Alaska boundary) and a line running 100 miles from the nearest Canadian land. An equidistant line is to apply between Canada and Greenland where the 100-mile limit is not applicable. Also included are waters above the continental shelf and other submarine areas where Canada controls mineral exploitation.
Within the waters so defined the deposit of waste of any type is prohibited. In addition provision is made for the control over any structures to be erected in the waters. Perhaps the most significant provisions are concerned with control over the passage of shipping through the Arctic by the establishment of shipping safety control zones from time to time. Within such zones, regulations may apply governing the construction of any vessel using the area, the provision of any navigation aids on it, the engines, the manning of the ship, cargo carried, provision of maps and charts, etc. This is clearly intended to ensure that no unsuitable vessel may enter Arctic waters where on account of ice or other hazards it may be damaged and so cause pollution. It is understood that the 1970 voyage of the American super-tanker Manhattan was undertaken in accordance with the provisions of bill C 202.
There is provision in the legislation to exempt ships of other governments from the direct application of the regulations. While the Canadian government expressed its readiness to defend the new 12-mile limit before the International Court, it informed the U.N. Secretary-General that Canada would no longer respect the authority of the Court over disputes involving pollution in waters off her coasts.
The legislation received unanimous consent at its second reading in the Canadian House of Commons. However, a formal protest was received by Canada against the new legislation from the United States, on the grounds that Canada had no right to control pollution in Arctic waters outside the territorial limits. The protest was rejected. The Secretary of State for External Affairs, Mr. Mitchell Sharp, offered to coöperate with other states in working out international agreements along similar lines, and he also expressed willingness to discuss with other governments the details of any regulations which might be put into effect under it. In public discussion of the new policies, the government has emphasized that it had tried and failed to secure prior international acceptance of its views and was introducing the legislation only because of the urgency of preventing a disaster which under Arctic conditions might well be beyond remedial action. Speaking in the House of Commons on April 16, 1970, Mr. Sharp gave comments on the U.S. objections. He said: "We cannot abdicate our responsibilities in a matter of special importance to us, and we cannot abandon our right and duty to protect our territory. Given this fundamental and irreversible position on our part, there remains nevertheless a wide range of possibilities for bilateral and multilateral coöperation which could advance the cause of environmental preservation in the Arctic waters in harmony with the interests of all concerned."
The immediate occasion for the new legislation is, of course, the discovery of oil in northern Alaska at Prudhoe Bay and the possibility that it may be transported to markets by way of a seaway through Arctic Canada, along with the discovery of oil also on the Arctic coast of Canada. There is also the possibility of further oil being found in the Canadian Arctic Islands and even of other minerals such as sulphur. Quite apart from transport of any oil that may be located is the expected increase in sea traffic because of the intensive mineral search going on there. The highly dramatized voyage of the Manhattan in 1969 and its return to the eastern Arctic in early 1970 emphasized the real possibility of regular movement of large oil tankers through Arctic waters at all seasons of the year. This, together with the great hazard from ice and the still limited knowledge and experience in handling such vessels in Arctic waters, raised the possibility of disaster on a large scale. During the 1969 summer, two oil barges were crushed in the ice of the Northwest Passage and served as a demonstration of the consequences of such oil spillage in very cold ice-filled seas.
Whether the Northwest Passage can become a regular shipping lane for tankers is still far from certain, but shipping of one sort or another seems certain there. Canada will be called on to provide the essential icebreaker service, aids to navigation, ice reconnaissance and the communications network needed to ensure safety of navigation to all. So the Northwest Passage seems likely to follow the Northeast Passage as an addition to the world's seaways. The new Canadian legislation is predicated on this taking place and attempts to forestall any serious calamity in Arctic waters because of oil. It is the hope of the Canadian government that other countries responsible for Arctic seas will before too long produce corresponding regulations.
What is the state of the far north likely to be in the foreseeable future in light of the dramatic discovery of oil in the Arctic and the almost inevitable exploitation of rich mineral deposits there? Many assume that the production of mineral resources in large quantities must necessarily lead to a rapid growth in northern settlement and a "filling up" of the so far empty northlands.
This seems most improbable. North Americans are familiar with the opening up of the West and the flooding of the empty farmlands with European migrants. Yet even there, today, especially on the Canadian prairies, there has been a reversal in the flow, with a withdrawal from the remoter farmlands to small towns and larger cities. That urban trend seems irreversible, and there is no reason to believe the situation in the North will be different. Hence we must regard northern Canada as a special case of a universal trend-toward urban living, based upon advanced technology with labor-saving industry as the economic basis. The scattered semi- nomadic native population is rapidly congregating in towns, attracted by schooling for children, medical services for all and an assured living from either wage labor or public support. Simple efficiency demands that governments concentrate their efforts in a few major centers where really first-class educational and other social services can be provided. So in northern Canada, Yellowknife, the capital city, grows in size and municipal splendor; Inuvik, the new city in the far northwest, and Frobisher in the southeast, follow suit. There may ultimately be perhaps a half-dozen other towns of some significance. That is all, except for possible isolated mining communities to which the working staffs will commute from the centers where their families live. Isolated geographically, northern communities will be in close electronic contact with each other and with the south. Their residents, the new urban nomads, highly specialized in their trades or professions, will regard the North as a way station in a career that may carry them to and fro across the nation. Some northern dwellers there will be permanent, but their children may remain in the North or move on. The same rules will eventually apply to the native peoples, who within a generation will not be distinguishable by education or occupation from other northerners.
One important feature of the new Canadian North is that it is likely to have a profound effect on the character of Canada as a whole. While even fairly recently it seemed probable that Canada's destiny lay in merging economically and politically with the United States, two factors now seem to make this improbable. The one is the noteworthy resurgence of French- Canadian culture likely to spread to other parts of Canada, giving the whole country a bicultural aspect. The other becomes daily more significant- the opening of the North and the impact this is likely to have on the younger Canadians, who will be its most active advocates. This last frontier concept is not merely a play on words, for it does provide the highly articulate and technically competent younger Canadians with a region to make their own. In doing so they may well alter quite radically the traditional view of Canada as a narrow strip along the northern margin of the United States, dependent on its culture and to an extent on its markets and its technology. There may be a new Canadian emphasis on the North, and Canada's international contacts may increasingly be with the other northern lands of Europe and with the U.S.S.R. This is the real message in the mineral exploitation now going on in the Arctic and the new legislation aimed at containing it.