TERRITORIAL gains by conquest often seem to require that the frontiers shall again and again be extended further afield. Japan's expansion on the continent of Asia, which she has sought to justify on the grounds of security, is a case in point.
Since 1905 Japan has extended her possessions and influence by an almost continuous process. Her most recent moves in Inner Mongolia and in the northern part of China proper are an integral part of this process. But they differ in method from the action taken in 1931 and 1933 in Manchuria and Jehol, where control was won by armed force. In this last step the threat of force alone has been sufficient to enable Tokyo to secure its objectives.
The course and progress of Japan's advance on the Asiatic mainland may be seen from the accompanying map.[i] In 1905 she secured from Russia the southern portion of Sakhalin, the Kwantung Leased Area, and the South Manchuria Railway. In 1910 she annexed Korea. In 1931-32 she invaded Manchuria and set up the puppet state of Manchukuo with Henry Pu-Yi, the former Emperor of China, as Chief Executive. In 1934 Pu-Yi ascended the throne as Emperor Kang Teh. In 1933 Jehol was invaded and added to Manchukuo.
In the summer of 1935, following incidents which took place along the border of Jehol between Japanese and Chinese troops, Tokyo made vigorous demands on the Chinese Government. These included the removal of the Chinese general in command of troops in Chahar, a province of Inner Mongolia; the dismissal of certain officials in Hopei, a province in China proper south of the Great Wall; and the removal of the Chinese troops from that area. China's compliance with these demands placed two more provinces within the expanding orbit of Japanese influence. The provinces continue, for the time being at least, under Chinese sovereignty; but they are subject to Japan's dictates through the pressure which she is able to exert on the Nanking Government. Each week brings reports of still further Japanese encroachments on
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