Participants light earthen oil lamps on the banks of the Sarayu river on the eve of Diwali, Ayodhya, November 2018.
Participants light earthen oil lamps on the banks of the Sarayu river on the eve of Diwali, Ayodhya, November 2018.
Pawan Kumar / REUTERS

In August, former Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee died at the age of 93. India’s first prime minister from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Vajpayee is often held up as an exemplar of moderate Hindu nationalism, especially in contrast to the current prime minister, Narendra Modi, who espouses a more strident ideology. Vajpayee’s obituaries have been written as obituaries not only of the man but also of that ideological moderation.

Yet what has gone unnoticed in Vajpayee’s death is the passing of an older, pluralist idea of India. In 1997, the historian Sunil Khilnani described "the idea of

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