Courtesy Reuters


The war in Iraq has profoundly changed the Middle East, although not in the  ways that Washington had anticipated. When the U.S. government toppled Saddam Hussein in 2003,  it thought regime change would help bring democracy to Iraq and then to the rest of the region. The  Bush administration thought of politics as the relationship between individuals and the state,  and so it failed to recognize that people in the Middle East see politics also as the balance of power  among communities. Rather than viewing the fall of Saddam as an occasion to create a liberal democracy,  therefore, many Iraqis viewed it as an opportunity to redress injustices in the distribution of  power among the country's major communities. By liberating and empowering Iraq's Shiite majority,  the Bush administration helped launch a broad Shiite revival that will upset the sectarian balance  in Iraq and the Middle East for

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  • VALI NASR is a Professor at the Naval Postgraduate School, an Adjunct Senior
    Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations, and the author of The Shia Revival: How Conflicts Within
    Islam Will Shape the Future.
  • More By Vali Nasr