Courtesy Reuters

Japan in Manchukuo

IT is now over a year since Japan officially recognized Manchukuo, signing a protocol under which she agreed to cooperate with the new state in the maintenance of its national security. During this period, organized opposition to the establishment of the new government has been crushed; Japan has been able to consolidate her position and initiate plans for the development of the country in harmony with her own economic and strategic needs. Although it is too early yet to make confident predictions regarding the future, we may assess progress and examine the situation as it stands today. In view of the war-clouds still hanging over Manchuria this may not be a profitless task.

The first fact to be grasped is that Manchukuo has come to stay. Before long the Japanese may possibly find it expedient to bring about a change in the form of government from a nominal republic, as at present, to a limited monarchy, with Mr. Henry Pu Yi restored as Manchu Emperor; but nobody believes that the Japanese have the least intention of relaxing the firm control they now exercise over the country's destinies.

Manchukuo's vaunted independence exists only in the imagination of Japanese propagandists. As at present constituted, the Manchukuo "government" amounts to little more than a polite fiction invented to obscure the fact that Japan has gone in for imperialism in a big way. Japanese officials occupy the key positions in the Manchukuo administration and work under direction of the Kwantung Army, which in turn is subordinate, ostensibly at least, to the Japanese Imperial General Staff. Mr. Pu Yi and his team of Manchu and Chinese ministers, commonly spoken of in Manchuria as "the phantom cabinet," are entirely overshadowed by their so-called Japanese "advisers," who in fact constitute the country's real executive authority.

Last spring the Manchukuo Government adopted an economic program. It indicated the following basic policies and aims: 1. To prevent any one class from monopolizing the benefits arising from the exploitation of natural resources

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