A Nigerien soldier on patrol in Duji, Nigeria, March 2015. 
JOE PENNEY / REUTERS

In recent months, the Islamist insurgent group Boko Haram has seen an apparent reversal of fortune. Regional military forces, in an offensive begun in the weeks before Nigeria’s general elections in March, have retaken territory and displaced militants from their strongholds in the northeast. President Muhammadu Buhari has pledged to end the insurgency in the northern states and is widely regarded as capable of doing so, in view of his military background and his familiarity with the zone of conflict.

But the Buhari administration will face a resilient and formidable opponent. Indeed, Boko Haram’s tactical flexibility and its roots in northern Nigeria’s marginalized communities suggest a prolonged and many-layered struggle. Already, the extremist group has responded to battlefield setbacks by returning to bombings and hit-and-run guerrilla attacks, a familiar operational shift that could lead to a surge in casualties.

In many respects, countering such diffuse tactics will

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  • NATHANIEL D.F. ALLEN is a Ph.D. candidate at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. PETER M. LEWIS is Associate Professor and Director of African Studies Program at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. HILARY MATFESS is a research analyst working on issues of governance and security in sub-Saharan Africa.
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