MR. JINNAH, the President of the Moslem League, claims that the Moslems in India are not just another kind of Indian, are not merely a minority, but are a nation. On this claim rests the demand for Pakistan, a separate Moslem state, independent in the world and in particular independent of Hindustan, the India of the Hindus. Hindus find difficulty in accepting this claim and its implication that there can be no union of India. The dispute is not just a petty squabble among politicians, of no particular importance to the rest of the world. The outcome of it will be the creation either of a Union of India -- the most populous state in the world, with the possible exception of China -- or of Pakistan, the largest of all the Moslem states and the last of a belt of independent Moslem countries stretching from Constantinople to Delhi, from the Hindu Kush to the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb.
The political and religious eruption of Islam out of Arabia in the seventh century soon spilt over into India; and Sind and parts of the Punjab were included, by about 700, in the domain of the Caliph of Baghdad. But not for another three hundred years was the influence of Islam to penetrate further into India, and then it did so under the banner of the Turks, not of the Arabs. About the year 1000, Mahmud, the ruler of a state based on Ghazni in southern Afghanistan, began a series of raids deep into India and added most of the modern Punjab and Sind to his possessions. From then onward for 500 years the story is a confused and rather grim one of conquest and rebellion and intervals of settled government. The Turkish invaders found themselves surrounded by a society and a civilization with which they had very little in common. In other parts of the world Moslem expansion was at the expense of Christians, who as "people of the Book," acknowledging, that is to
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