Courtesy Reuters

Back of the Spanish Rebellion

MY EARS are still repeating, as I write, the echoes of roaring cannon and exploding bombs, of the intermittent "putt-putting" of machine guns and of continuous volleys of rifle fire, of clattering hoofs and bugle calls, of men shouting and others screaming in anguish, of screeching flocks of swallows flying back and forth in a frenzy as bullets whistle among them, of all the deafening cacophony with which, on the morning of July 19, rebellion was unleashed here in Barcelona and elsewhere on the mainland of Spain.

Here and in other loyal cities an armed anti-fascist militia of citizens are patrolling the streets afoot and in requisitioned motorcars, rifles across shoulders, pistols in hand. The streets and the highways bristle with barricades held by these same citizen soldiers whose only uniform is their firearm. Churches, monasteries and convents have been invaded and burned in hundreds upon hundreds. Priests and nuns have been scattered to the four winds and a sickening number of them have been killed, as have other fascist sympathizers. The rebels, also, are taking without pity their innumerable victims -- peasants and workers and Republicans of all shades of opinion opposed to theirs. The land is drenched in blood and the end is far from sight.

Red revolutionists -- Anarcho-Syndicalists, Socialists and various brands of Marxists -- have made common cause with the government to save Spain from fascism. It is recognized, both within and without the country, that fascism versus popular rule has become the sharply defined issue. But when the revolutionary minded proletariat shall have done with the fascists, they will still have to come to an understanding with the constitutional government. Can Republican constitutional government prosper in Spain or has a proletarian social system, long incubating, settled upon it for an indefinite stay? That is a question which to a foreign observer like myself looms fully as large as the one of fascism versus popular rule.

Overnight -- literally -- the course of Spanish history has been

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