ON September 1, 1951, New Zealand, jointly with Australia, entered into a treaty of mutual security with a foreign Power, the United States. Great Britain was not a party to the pact, commonly known as the Anzus Treaty. The new alliance is a practical recognition of the defense requirements of the two Dominions and an earnest of their determination to defend themselves against any future aggression, in conjunction with the United States, the strongest Power in the Pacific. The Treaty is unprecedented in the history of the British Commonwealth, but it does not weaken, and is not intended by any of the parties to weaken, the existing close ties of affection and interest between Great Britain and New Zealand and Australia. In particular, it will not detract from the close military, naval and air liaison among these three members of the Commonwealth.
Indeed, the average New Zealand citizen does not regard the Anzus Treaty as one made with a Power which he would describe as foreign. To quote from a speech of General Smuts delivered in 1934, "There is a community of outlook, of interests, and perhaps of ultimate destiny between the Dominions and the U.S.A. which in essence is only the first and most important of them."
New Zealand realized that it was the path of wisdom to give the Japanese a generous treaty of peace and not seek a vindictive settlement. Nevertheless, the New Zealand Government, with the Australian Government, felt strongly that the resurgence of Japanese militarism is possible. Because of that possibility both Australia and New Zealand considered that while they were justified in agreeing to a lenient treaty of peace with Japan, they were entitled to an undertaking by the United States that if Japan again launched an aggressive war in the Pacific, the United States would come to their aid. We in New Zealand were anxious to secure ourselves against any aggression in the Pacific, whether from a resurgent and militaristic Japan or, what is certainly
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