The Clash of Civilizations?
The Dangers of Decadence: What the Rest Can Teach the West
The Case for Optimism: The West Should Believe in Itself
Civilization Grafting: No Culture is an Island
The Modernizing Imperative: Tradition and Change
Do Civilizations Hold?
The West Is Best
If Not Civilizations, What? Samuel Huntington Responds to His Critics
Clash of Globalizations
Us and Them
The Enduring Power of Ethnic Nationalism
The Clash of Emotions
To celebrate the twentieth anniversary of the publication of “The Clash of Civilizations?,” we have compiled a new eBook collection featuring a broad range of Foreign Affairs content. The eBook includes Samuel Huntington's original article and the praise and criticism inspired in its wake, plus a new introduction by Editor Gideon Rose. Find out more.
THE NEXT PATTERN OF CONFLICT
World politics is entering a new phase, and intellectuals have not hesitated to proliferate visions of what it will be-the end of history, the return of traditional rivalries between nation states, and the decline of the nation state from the conflicting pulls of tribalism and globalism, among others. Each of these visions catches aspects of the emerging reality. Yet they all miss a crucial, indeed a central, aspect of what global politics is likely to be in the coming years.
It is my hypothesis that the fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural. Nation states will remain the most powerful actors in world affairs, but the principal conflicts of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilizations. The clash of civilizations will dominate global politics. The fault lines between civilizations will be the battle lines of the future.
Conflict between civilizations will be the latest phase in the evolution of conflict in the modern world. For a century and a half after the emergence of the modern international system with the Peace of Westphalia, the conflicts of the Western world were largely among princes-emperors, absolute monarchs and constitutional monarchs attempting to expand their bureaucracies, their armies, their mercantilist economic strength and, most important, the territory they ruled. In the process they created nation states, and beginning with the French Revolution the principal lines of conflict were between nations rather than princes. In 1793, as R. R. Palmer put it, "The wars of kings were over;
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