For over a decade, the United States has promoted a free and open Internet as a central tenet of its foreign policy. To date, this has most visibly involved shaming governments that limit access to online content and developing tools that help individuals circumvent censorship and surveillance. Perhaps even more important, though, have been Washington’s efforts to ensure that the Internet remains regulated by public as well as private stakeholders -- not just governments alone.
The latest debate over Internet governance centers on the relationship between the United States and the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, a private, nonprofit organization that manages domain names and Internet Protocol, or IP, addresses. Since its creation, ICANN has been under contract with the U.S. Department of Commerce, giving Washington a critical say in how the Internet is regulated. Last month, the department announced plans to let its contract with ICANN expire in 2015 and transition toward a “global multi-stakeholder model,” the details of which are still being developed. This has led to criticism that Washington is naively giving up its long-standing role as a guarantor of Internet freedom. The move, however, is a shrewd one. Handing over control of ICANN will defuse mounting criticism of Washington’s outsized influence on Internet governance -- and head off efforts by repressive states that want to expand their own.
Understanding the full impact of the decision requires some context. At the broadest level, Internet governance involves managing the technical architecture of cyberspace, which was imbued by its original designers with an open infrastructure and nonproprietary standards. Until his death in 1998, one of them -- Jon Postel, a computer science professor at the University of Southern California -- single-handedly ran the domain name system, which matches IP numbers to Web site addresses. (Although the U.S. government funded the Internet in its infancy, it gave up control over its development early on.) The Internet’s rapid growth, however, quickly outstripped Postel’s capacity to administer