Courtesy Reuters

Yugoslavia, 1971

Certain moments in the lives of peoples represent milestones in their centuries-long journeys. There were several such moments in the process of establishing the principles of self-managed socialist democracy in the multinational federal state of Jugoslavia.

At Jajce on November 29, 1943, the Anti-Fascist Council of the National Liberation of Jugoslavia laid the foundations of the present Socialist Federal Republic. What was proclaimed at Jajce became the Magna Carta of the Federation, built on the ruins of the old unitary monarchy of Jugoslavia by virtue of the War of National Liberation and the idea of brotherhood and unity.

Another historic step was taken in 1950 when the Law on Workers Management of State Economic Enterprises and Higher Economic Associations was enacted.[i] However, more than a dozen years passed before the principle of self-management became pervasive in all domains of Jugoslav activity. Only then could it be incorporated in the 1963 Constitution.

Now in 1971 has come another major milestone. On June 30 of this year the Federal Assembly adopted 23 amendments to the 1963 Constitution. They spell out the functions of the Federation, clarify the relationship between the Federation and the constituent Republics and extend the economic foundations of self-management. The Federal Assembly also announced the nature of the Presidency, which is to be a new collective incarnation of the Socialist Federal Republic, based on equal representation of the Republics and adequate representation of the Autonomous Provinces. These achievements will further the country's socioeconomic advance and provide unity and stability for socialism and nonalignment.


It may now be said without exaggeration that after 25 years the three main aims of the National Liberation War and the socialist revolution in Jugoslavia have, on the whole, been achieved. The country soon recovered from the devastation of the war, even though it had lost 1,700,000 of its 15,000,000 people as well as suffering tremendous material damage. It developed political structures to provide for increasingly direct participation of workers and citizens in the management of public affairs. Finally, Jugoslavia's steady nonaligned international position has

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