FA RSS https://www.foreignaffairs.com/ en Democracy on Pause in Pandemic Poland https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/europe/2020-05-13/democracy-pause-pandemic-poland The ruling party takes advantage of lockdown. Tue, 12 May 2020 21:59:15 -0400 Marta Figlerowicz 1126024 New Aid for New Europe https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/europe/1947-10-01/new-aid-new-europe AMERICANS since V-E Day have spent more than $11 billion to aid European recovery. Through UNRRA, the Red Cross and private agencies we have shipped millions of tons of supplies for relief and reconstruction. We loaned $8 billion to Great Britain, France and other European countries to purchase food, raw materials, and equipment for their factories, and to repair their transport systems and their public utilities. The President, the Secretary of Agriculture and other public officials have pointed with pride to these evidences of American foresight and generosity. They, and Congress and the public, seem to have assumed that the job was finished, or soon would be. UNRRA's term expired December 31, 1946, and with it large-scale international relief came to an end. While reconstruction might take somewhat longer, it was hoped that the American loans already made would enable Europeans to finish that task largely by their own efforts. Whatever additional outside help was needed could be supplied by the new International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Fri, 07 Oct 2011 21:02:47 -0400 Percy W. Bidwell, William Diebold Jr. 1112287 Atlantic Pact or European Unity https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/europe/1962-07-01/atlantic-pact-or-european-unity NATO gave proof that the United States was determined to save and consolidate the democracies of Western Europe after World War II. Following the economic underpinning provided by the Marshall Plan it constituted a fairly satisfactory solution to the problems which both they and the United States then had to face. Having subjugated Eastern Europe, Stalin was turning to the West; his prime aim was to undermine democracy there before it could get firmly on its feet. By assuming the leadership in organizing Western defense, the United States provided an effective answer to this challenge. Wed, 28 Jan 2009 16:32:54 -0500 Altiero Spinelli 1108532 The Practice of Partnership https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/europe/1963-01-01/practice-partnership In the crisis precipitated by the discovery of Russian strategic nuclear weapons and delivery systems in Cuba, many Americans came to a new understanding of the great accretion of strength which membership in our alliances in this hemisphere and in Europe brings to a confrontation of power. They got a new understanding, too, of the vast importance of having choices of means, other than nuclear means, of meeting a hostile threat. These truths, seen in the sharp light of experience, bring into clearer relief the central problem of our European alliance. Wed, 28 Jan 2009 16:33:37 -0500 Dean Acheson 1108558 Redefining Europe and the Atlantic Link https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/europe/1989-09-01/redefining-europe-and-atlantic-link The postwar division of Europe is slowly eroding. This is partly a consequence of the thaw in relations between Washington and Moscow. But it would not be possible without the powerful influence of a resurgent and increasingly self-confident European Community. The West Europeans themselves have become the engineers and chief architects reshaping Europe, with economic forces driving the process. The growing unity and prosperity of the EC exert a magnetic force on Eastern Europe, setting in train a process by which the two halves of the continent are steadily reducing barriers to the movement of goods, ideas and people-and largely on terms that support Western values and interests. Wed, 28 Jan 2009 18:34:53 -0500 Robert D. Hormats 1110494 A Plan for Europe: How to Expand NATO https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/europe/1995-01-01/plan-europe-how-expand-nato The Clinton administration needs to lead Europe and expand NATO, but without harming ties with Russia. Washington should dispel the ambiguity created by its current waffling. The president must take a two-track approach: start the process of accepting Central European states into NATO by spelling out criteria for membership and sign a global security treaty with Russia. To make it work, Germany and Poland will have to reconcile, the West and Russia will have to soothe Ukraine, and the problem of the Baltics will have to be finessed. Only American leadership can help create a wider, safer Europe for the next century. Wed, 28 Jan 2009 18:48:24 -0500 Zbigniew Brzezinski 1110787 America, A European Power https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/europe/1995-03-01/america-european-power The Congress of Vienna, the Treaty of Versailles, and the NATO-based containment strategy were three pivotal decisions in European diplomacy. Now there is a fourth opportunity to construct a lasting European peace through institutions, new and old. Foremost, NATO must expand, discussing openly which new countries to admit. The Partnership for Peace and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe should coordinate human rights and civilian control of armies. Respect for human rights must extend to Russia, which is why the Chechen campaign has been so disturbing. To turn away from the challenge of this moment and freeze NATO would exact a higher price later. Wed, 28 Jan 2009 18:48:43 -0500 Richard Holbrooke 1110863 Reviving the West: For an Atlantic Union https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/europe/1996-05-01/reviving-west-atlantic-union The West has triumphed over its adversaries, but all is not well in the realm. Its voters are unhappy, its politics adrift. Now is not the time to pursue ambitious plans that would simultaneously deepen and broaden existing institutions. The West must lock in and eventually extend the greatest achievement of the past century: the creation of a community of democratic states among which war is unthinkable. The mechanism would be a transatlantic union committed to a single market and collective security. Wed, 28 Jan 2009 18:51:02 -0500 Charles A. Kupchan 1109927 Europe, the Necessary Partner https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/europe/2001-05-01/europe-necessary-partner In many areas, transatlantic cooperation is stronger than ever before. Yet the common perception is of an increasingly fraught relationship, as evidenced by the well-known disputes over beef, bananas, and burden sharing. Assumptions are diverging over security risks and cultural values. Each side criticizes the other's unwieldy policymaking process without admitting its own shortcomings, while leaders pander to domestic interests and prejudices without educating voters on international issues. Europe nonetheless remains indispensable to a multilateral U.S. foreign policy. The Bush administration must acknowledge the European Union as a true partner, in political and military matters as well as in economics. America cannot expect its allies to share the burdens of global leadership without allowing them their say in the issues at stake. Wed, 28 Jan 2009 19:01:43 -0500 William Wallace 1110155 Rebuilding the Atlantic Alliance https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/europe/2003-09-01/rebuilding-atlantic-alliance Despite the myriad setbacks of recent months, the U.S.-European alliance is not doomed. But repairing it will require a strategic overhaul no less bold than that which followed the end of the Cold War. The key to today's transatlantic divide is not power but purpose. To revive and revamp the alliance, therefore, the United States and the European Union must forge a new grand strategy capable of meeting the great challenges of the era: expanding the Euro-Atlantic community and stabilizing the greater Middle East. Wed, 28 Jan 2009 19:06:16 -0500 Ronald D. Asmus 1110269