Oleg Ignatovich / RIA Novosti archive Fresh forces going to the front from Moscow, December 1, 1941.

This Year in History

Our Selections From October

All year, we've been highlighting historical news events—and Foreign Affairs articles about those events—as part of our "This Day in History" series. Here are our collected selections for October.

Click here to see all months.

1

1949: People's Republic of China Founded

Facing an imminent victory in the Chinese civil war, Chairman Mao Zedong declares the PRC founded. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

2

1941: Battle for Moscow

Nazi Germany advances on Moscow. The battle ends in January 1942 with a Soviet victory. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

3

1932: Iraq Obtains Independence

Britain ends its 17-year mandate over Iraq and the newly independent country is admitted to the League of Nations. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

4

1957: The Soviet Union Launches Sputnik

The Soviet Union beats the United States in launching the first artificial satellite, beginning the "space race," a defining feature of the Cold War. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

5

1989: Dalai Lama Wins Nobel Peace Prize

The religious and political leader is honored for his nonviolent efforts to end Chinese control of Tibet. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

6

1970: South Vietnam Withdraws From Cambodia

South Vietnam pulls 12,000 men from southeastern Cambodia after a three-month anti-Communist operation. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

7

1960: Kennedy and Nixon Debate Foreign Policy

Presidential candidates John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon debate Cold War policy in their second televised debate. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

8

2005: Earthquake in Kashmir

A 7.6 magnitude earthquake hit the Kashmir region between India and Pakistan, killing 70,000 and injuring 70,000. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

9

1967: Che Guevara Is Executed

The revolutionary leader Ernesto "Che" Guevara, who helped lead the socialist revolution in Cuba, is shot by the Bolivian army after having been captured the previous day. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

10

1957: Eisenhower Apologizes to Ghana's Finance Minister

President Dwight D. Eisenhower issues an apology to Komla Agbeli Gbdemah after he was refused service at restaurant due to racial segregation. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

11

1986: Reagan and Gorbachev Talk Missiles

The two leaders meet in Reykjavik, Iceland, to discuss missile arsenals, but the talks fall apart when Reagan refuses to compromise on his "Star Wars" initiative. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

12

2000: Terrorists Attack the USS Cole

Two al Qaeda suicide bombers detonate a dinghy loaded with explosives alongside the U.S. Navy destroyer while it refueled in Aden, Yemen. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

 

13

1977: Palestinians Hijack German Airliner

Four Palestinians hijack a Lufthansa plane, demanding the release of prisoners from a left wing terrorist group in Germany. Three of the hijackers were later killed and 86 hostages were freed. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

14

1890: Eisenhower Is Born

Dwight D. Eisenhower, the 34th president of the United States, is born near Abilene, Texas. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

15

1990: Gorbachev Wins the Nobel Peace Prize

Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev wins the award for his efforts to end the Cold War and for adopting a policy of less intervention. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

16

1973: Kissinger and Vietnamese Revolutionary Receive Nobel Peace Prize

Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho are honored for negotiating the Paris Peace Accords. Kissinger accepted the award but Tho declined. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

17

1966: LBJ Visits Asia

U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson takes a 17-day trip to Asia and the Pacific, visiting seven countries and attending a conference in Manila to discuss the war in Vietnam. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

18

1867: The United States Buys Alaska

Roughly 586,400 square miles of territory are purchased from Russia for $7.2 million. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

19

1935: League of Nations Sanctions Italy

The League votes to impose sanctions on Italy for its invasion of Ethiopia, but the bans are largely ineffective. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

20

1973: The "Saturday Night Massacre" Scandal

During the Watergate investigation, U.S. President Richard Nixon fires the independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

21

1941: Massacre in Yugoslavia

German troops kill thousands of Yugoslavian civilians who had been protesting against their country's participation in the Tripartite Pact of March 1941. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

22

1964: Sartre Wins Nobel Prize

French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre wins for literature, but declines the award. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

23

2002: Hostage Crisis in Moscow

Chechen rebels storm the Palace of Culture and take 700 people hostage. Russian special forces later raid the theater and release the surviving hostages. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

24

1970: Salvador Allende Becomes President of Chile

He is the first Marxist to be elected president in a Latin American country. The United States tries relentlessly to destabilize his government and he is eventually overthrown in a 1973 military coup. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

25

1983: U.S. Invades Grenada

President Reagan orders 2,000 U.S. troops to Grenada, citing the Marxist regime's threat to Americans on the island and overthrowing the government within a week. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

26

2001: Patriot Act

President George W. Bush signs the anti-terrorism law, which gives the FBI greater access to personal information. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

27

1858: Theodore Roosevelt Is Born

The future president is born in New York City, and his legacy would include environmental protection and increased American involvement in Latin America. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

28

1962: End of Cuban Missile Crisis

After two weeks of great tension, Krushchev agrees to withdraw Soviet missiles from Cuba if the United States pledges to respect Cuban sovereignty. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

29

1929: Black Tuesday

Sixteen million shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange as panic sets in, marking the start of the Great Depression. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

30

1918: Ottoman Empire Signs WWI Treaty

The weakened empire signs a treay with the Allies, ending its participation in WWI and marking its eventual demise. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

31

1984: Indira Gandhi Is Assassinated

The prime minister of India is assassinated in New Delhi by two of her bodyguards amid sectarian violence in the country. Read more about it in the Foreign Affairs archive.

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