In This Review
The End of History and the Last Man

The End of History and the Last Man

By Francis Fukuyama

Free Press, 1992, 400 pp.
The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order

The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order

By Samuel P. Huntington

Simon & Schuster, 1996, 368 pp.
The Tragedy of Great Power Politics

The Tragedy of Great Power Politics

By John J. Mearsheimer

Norton, 2001, 448 pp.

"Practical men, who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influence, are usually the slave of some defunct economist," John Maynard Keynes once wrote. Politicians and pundits view the world through instincts and assumptions rooted in some philosopher's Big Idea. Some ideas are old and taken for granted throughout society. For most Americans, it is the ideas of the liberal tradition, from John Locke to Woodrow Wilson, that shape their thinking about foreign policy. The sacred concepts of freedom, individualism, and cooperation are so ingrained in U.S. political culture that most people assume them to be the

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  • RICHARD K. BETTS is Director of the Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies at Columbia University and an Adjunct Senior Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations. His latest book is Enemies of Intelligence.
  • More By Richard K. Betts