Diplomacy.
Gideon Rose

The Ottoman Empire’s loss of Crimea to the Russian Empire in 1783 was a turning point in both civilizations’ histories. For the Ottomans, it was the first permanent loss of a major Muslim territory to a Christian power, in this case Catherine the Great’s Russia, which, like President Vladimir Putin’s Russia, had intervened in a Crimean civil war and eventually annexed the peninsula. For the Russians, it was the beginning of their country’s transformation into a global power; through the Black Sea, Russia could sail on the West.

From 1783 onward, Moscow used its sea presence to bedevil

This article is part of our premium archives.

To continue reading and get full access to our entire archive, you must subscribe.

Subscribe