Workers erect scaffolding at the famous Fori Imperiali in Rome October 25, 2004, just days before the Heads of State and Government and Foreign Ministers of 29 European countries met at the Campidoglio to sign the Treaty and Final Act that established a Constitution for Europe. The treaty was adandoned the next year.
Courtesy Reuters


After French and Dutch voters rejected the draft treaty establishing a constitution for Europe last spring, there was no doubt that a crisis of unprecedented seriousness confronted the European Union. The shock was so severe that the ratification process was extended for an indefinite "period of reflection," to allow some EU members (such as the United Kingdom) to suspend further votes that might deal the treaty additional blows. Soon, however, the effects of the French and Dutch no votes were compounded by the European Council's failure to agree on the EU budget for 2007-13 thanks to a

This article is part of our premium archives.

To continue reading and get full access to our entire archive, you must subscribe.