Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe on board the USS Ronald Reagan near Tokyo, October 2015.

In the aftermath of World War II, American policymakers understood that a prosperous Japan anchored in a U.S.-led economic order would be in the United States’ interest, since it could help support forward-deployed U.S. forces and counter the Soviet Union’s influence. For that reason, the United States supported Japan’s postwar recovery, developing a relationship with Tokyo grounded in economic and security cooperation. But the United States eventually became a victim of that policy’s success. As Japan’s economy grew, its companies gained market share at the expense of American producers. Sheltered under the U.

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