Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan reviewing a guard of honour in Istanbul, September 2017. 
Kayhan Ozer / Presidential Palace / Handout via REUTERS

The European Union and the United States face a remarkably similar set of challenges in dealing with Turkey. They both have long-standing relationships with Ankara and important interests at stake in the country’s future. Yet the arrangements that have historically anchored each of their respective ties with Turkey—the promise of Turkey’s eventual EU accession and its decades-long military alliance with the United States—no longer seem capable of handling President Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s increasingly authoritarian and anti-Western stance.

As a result, European and U.S. policymakers are searching for a way forward. Some seek to salvage

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