In This Review

Active Measures: The Secret History of Disinformation and Political Warfare
Active Measures: The Secret History of Disinformation and Political Warfare
By Thomas Rid
Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2020, 528 pp.
The Folly and the Glory: America, Russia, and Political Warfare, 1945–2020
The Folly and the Glory: America, Russia, and Political Warfare, 1945–2020
By Tim Weiner
Henry Holt, 2020, 336 pp.

In 1864, the Russian poet Fyodor Tyutchev wrote that “Russia’s only natural policy toward the West must be to seek not an alliance with the Western powers but their disunity and division.” In the decades that followed, Russian and Soviet leaders heeded that advice. A century and a half later, the United States is still grappling with the aftermath of Russia’s attempts to amplify and benefit from divisions within American society during the 2016 U.S. presidential election campaign. As a result of that interference, which Moscow reprised to a lesser extent in the 2020 campaign, Russia has become a toxic

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