German Chancellor Olaf Scholz and U.S. President Joe Biden in Washington, D.C., February 2022
Leah Millis / Reuters

Editor’s Note: This article is part of a series examining Washington's relationship with its allies after U.S. President Joe Biden's first year in office.


Russia’s war in Ukraine has inspired a radical shift in German foreign policy. After decades of minimizing its defense commitments and expanding its trade ties with Moscow, Berlin has suddenly pledged to ramp up defense spending and modernize its military, provide military assistance to Ukraine, and reduce its energy dependence on Vladimir Putin’s Russia. In a speech to a special session of Parliament on February 27, German Chancellor Olaf Scholz described the invasion

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