Reflection in the Bundestag, Berlin, February 2022
Michele Tantussi / Reuters

More than three decades ago, U.S. President George H. W. Bush expressed a wish for a Europe both “whole and free.” Russian President Vladimir Putin’s unprovoked invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 made that unrealized vision more elusive. Russia’s Hobbesian war of choice in Ukraine was a direct challenge to the Kantian idea of universal peace on which the project of European integration was founded. The conflict has reminded the European Union that it remains dependent on the United States for its security. Long-simmering tensions between eastern and western Europe on how to deal with Moscow have been

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