This is a volume in the Modern World series, and like the other volumes it devotes but little space to the history of the last century. The emphasis is laid on the war period and on post-war developments, so that the central theme becomes the rise of Fascism and the working of the Fascist régime. The author may be taken as one of the most capable exponents of the Fascist view, and his book makes good reading after Croce. Villari is inclined to take a practical view of the problem. For him the Risorgimento burned itself out and there was nothing strictly national to take its place. Liberalism of the English stamp, radicalism of the French type, German socialism, Russian bolshevism -- all in his eyes were foreign importations and misfits so far as the Italian national genius was concerned. The pre-war system was corrupt and unworkable, and the victory of Fascism, a truly national product, was inevitable. There follow a number of good chapters on the Fascist system, the new syndicalism, foreign policy, and the problem of church and state. On the whole a stimulating volume.