A book that should not be ignored by the champions of the Chinese nationalists. The author reviews the contacts of China with the foreigner since the eighteenth century and examines with particular care the circumstances under which the various treaties were concluded. Their object, he points out, was not to put China into a position of subjection, but to enforce from the Chinese Government a recognition of the equality of the foreigner. They were not unfair agreements and were absolutely essential for the development and safeguarding of legitimate trading interests. Conditions have not changed materially, and the treaties are still "a feeble barrier between commerce and chaos." The author considers that the agitation for abrogation of the agreements is being carried on chiefly by those who desire a free hand for ruthless exploitation, and consequently the abolition of the treaties would be a disaster for the Chinese masses as well as for European interests.