This volume in the Carnegie series fills an important niche, for, as students of the war know only too well, the dearth of reliable information on what went on behind the Turkish lines presents an almost insuperable obstacle in the way of understanding the Near Eastern phase of the great conflict. The author of this volume points out in the preface that it is difficult even now to secure the necessary material for an adequate study. In statistics the Ottoman Government was hopelessly negligent. Nevertheless the present volume helps considerably to overcome the existing deficiency of information. The writer, a trained statistician and economist, not only spent the whole war period in Turkey but maintained close contacts with the intellectual leaders and the most prominent nationalist statesmen. After tracing the breakdown of the old régime and the rise of the Young Turks in the introductory chapters, he surveys the various aspects of the economic phase of the war, takes up the racial problems, the questions of reform, education and health, and ends with a succinct analysis of the new nationalist movement. An invaluable book for students of Near Eastern affairs.