This book offers something new and very much needed in the literature of nineteenth century history. It is not a text-book in the American sense, but is based largely on a series of lectures delivered by the eminent Italian philosopher and historian a few years ago. One chapter originally appeared in FOREIGN AFFAIRS. Croce makes no attempt at a detailed narrative of events, but tries rather to give a broad synthesis of the main currents in European life, with special emphasis on the intellectual movements and the social development. His viewpoint is of course that of the nineteenth century liberal, but this does not imply that the book is one-sided, for he possesses the true critical faculty and the rare ability to see events in the larger setting.