This is Trotsky's blast against the Soviet claim that Stalin has established socialism in Russia. In the sub-title to his book he asks: "What is the Soviet Union and where is it going?" To which he replies that under Stalin Russia has become a brutal bureaucracy in which a few privileged officials live at the expense of the great mass of the workers and peasants. While conceding the dictatorship's undoubted achievements in industrialization and state planning, he insists that all this has been accomplished at the expense of the Socialist Revolution, both in and out of Russia. The book is filled with facts, in large part derived from Soviet sources. As we would expect, it was written with fiery passion -- which Max Eastman has preserved in his excellent translation.