This is an English translation (by Joel Carmichael and Moshe Perlmann) of a book originally appearing in German just at the outbreak of World War II. It is a remarkable tour deforce of historical synthesis, covering as it does North Africa, Spain, the Balkans and the Upper Nile Valley as well as the Middle Eastern countries. It does not, however, deal with the Moslems of India, Malaya or the East Indies. The translators have appended a review of events for 1939-47. Chronological tables and selected bibliography.