This is Il Duce's account of Italian events from November 1942 until he became head of the puppet Republic a year later. It is full of bombast, complaints of betrayal and self-exculpation. Here and there are facts and documents of importance, and analyses of such phenomena as the relations between the crown and the party régime. Its main interest is Mussolini's unintended but deeply etched portrait of himself. No future historian will need to deflate his character and intellectual pretensions to their true dimensions, so effectively has he himself done the job. This work originally appeared in the Corriere della Sera during June and July 1944, and has here been translated and edited by Max Ascoli.