A rather ponderous monograph, based on new archival material and on a much earlier doctoral thesis, of the events between Mussolini's fall and the departure of Allied troops. Ellwood focuses on the interplay between indigenous developments and Allied action and wrangling. The British assumed early responsibility for Italy; in April 1945 Harold Macmillan, British resident minister, complained that London followed "childish autonomy towards the Italians," and Ellwood emphasizes British "vindictiveness. . . a kind of malevolent inertia which set the tone of the occupation."