A tale of the many millions who left native grounds because of persecution, poverty and war beginning with the East European migrations of the 1880s and ending with the forced migrations after World War II. Marrus, who has written excellent books on French Jewry, focuses on the refugees as continuing challenges to other European states, to aid agencies and to oppositional groups that blocked refugees, a policy notoriously reversed by Vichy. For Europe today the problem has receded, but amidst unemployment and economic difficulties, Europeans are once again turning protectionist, anxious to keep out foreign workers and competitors.
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