Following the 1991 Kurdish uprising against Saddam Hussein’s repressive rule, the Kurds captured literally tons of documents from the files of the Iraqi security services. Like other dictators, Saddam apparently insisted that his minions record their crimes. As a result, the world now has conclusive evidence that in 1988 Iraq used chemical weapons on its own citizens, and very strong indications of an extermination campaign that may have cost the lives of at least 50,000 Kurds. Human Rights Watch has not only analyzed the captured documents but has conducted extensive interviews with eyewitnesses, where possible matching their testimony with the written accounts from the archives. The result is a horrifying picture of Saddam’s regime.