A skillfully drawn investigation of three countries -- South Africa, Singapore, and Israel -- that have attempted to forge different (and often antagonistic) ethnic groups into effective military organizations. The central problem for these states was what the author terms "Trojan horse fears" -- namely, concerns that a subordinate ethnic group might use its military expertise and status to turn against a state in which their clan, tribe, or group is disadvantaged. In his view, success arises from austere military professionalism, which proves surprisingly effective in dealing with underlying conflict as long as an army does not have at its core a nation-building mission. This thesis may seem paradoxical, but the evidence adduced is convincing. A neat, crisp study, of interest to scholar and practitioner alike.