This report urges Western policymakers to help end Sudan's disastrous civil war by seizing what may be a short-lived opportunity created by September 11. American pressure on Sudan to cooperate with antiterror efforts, combined with Khartoum's desire to realize the benefits of its new oil industry, have created a struggle between moderates and hard-liners for the soul of the country's ruling Islamist party. The report argues that with enough international use of sticks and carrots, a viable peace agreement could be achieved. It is not hard to determine the essential ingredients of such an agreement and the steps needed to lay a foundation for a more democratic future political system. What will be more difficult is clearing the traffic jam of existing competing peace initiatives so that a unified process, preferably centered around John Danforth, President George W. Bush's special envoy to Sudan, can be mounted to take advantage of the present window of opportunity. A clear assessment of the policy options.