Keddie's Roots of Revolution was published in 1981, Marr's first edition of The Modern History of Iraq in 1985. The history of both countries since those dates cries out for further coverage, and it is especially effective having the last two decades presented in the context of well-rounded country studies that offer a coherent history from roughly two centuries ago to the present. It is sufficient to note that the new material (more than 100 pages in Keddie's book, even more in Marr's) meets the high standard of the first editions. Keddie and Marr have both devoted virtually their entire scholarly careers to the study of their chosen countries, and it shows. With insightful and measured interpretations drawing on a rich lode of sources (cited and often annotated in the notes or bibliography), these are essential books for one's working library.