Among the venerable intellectual histories of Russia that have been written over the last two centuries, this massive, sweeping book represents the premier contribution of the current era. Hamburg is exceedingly ambitious, attempting to synthesize two periods that are normally divided: the two centuries before the era of Peter the Great (which lasted from 1682 to 1725) and the century or so that followed. The first period was defined by ideas about authority, righteous rule, and social virtues that originated in the Russian Orthodox Church. By Peter’s time, Russian thinkers—many of them in or near government—were still defending autocracy, but some had also begun promoting norms and institutions that would create a more modern state, with a semblance of the rule of law and a relationship between church and state based on religious tolerance. This trend culminated during the so-called Russian Enlightenment, which took place during the reign of Catherine the Great, in the second half of the eighteenth century. What makes Hamburg’s treatment so original is the way he reveals the continuity in the complex mergers between church and state that took place across the centuries and his demonstration of how European thought echoed in Russia, even before Peter and Catherine, but without undoing the core link between religious faith and politics.