Drinkers in China, Russia, the United States, and elsewhere appreciate fine wine as one of European culture’s great gifts to the world. Yet in recent decades, wine production has become a truly global industry, pitting producers of wine (fine and not so fine) nearly everywhere against one another in what this author calls a “wine war”—a ruthless battle to establish brand recognition and grab market share. Castriota, an Italian economist who doubles as a certified sommelier, offers the best introduction to the economics of wine currently available. Many factors, from cultural predispositions to the climate, shape the supply of and demand for wine and the profitability of the firms that make it. Various types of producers, from California conglomerates to Tuscan family farms, have found ways to prosper in the global wine economy. In the end, however, the most important factor determining success appears to be government regulation. In many countries, particularly within the European Union, tax advantages, classification systems, and trademark protection help keep production profitable, and states even directly subsidize small producers.