In This Review

Dark Territory: The Secret History of Cyber War
Dark Territory: The Secret History of Cyber War
By Fred Kaplan
352 pp, Simon & Schuster, 2016
Purchase
The Hacked World Order: How Nations Fight, Trade, Maneuver, and Manipulate in the Digital Age
The Hacked World Order: How Nations Fight, Trade, Maneuver, and Manipulate in the Digital Age
By Adam Segal
320 pp, PublicAffairs, 2016
Purchase

Today’s cyberbattles could almost make one nostalgic for the Cold War. The nuclear arms race created a sense of existential threat, but at least it was clear who had the weapons. In contrast, a cyberattack could be the work of almost anyone. After hackers broke into the U.S. Democratic National Committee’s servers in 2016 and released e-mails embarrassing to the DNC’s leadership, the Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump said the attacker could be China, Russia, or “somebody sitting on their bed that weighs 400 pounds.” 

U.S. intelligence officials have said that the attack did indeed come from Russia, which Trump later acknowledged. But Trump’s comment underscored a larger problem with cyberwarfare: uncertainty. How does a government respond to an invisible attacker, especially without clear rules of engagement? How can officials convince other governments and the public that they have fingered the right suspects? How can a

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