Harold James is Professor of History and International Affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University and Professor of History at the European University Institute, in Florence.
The current financial crisis poses a fundamental challenge to globalization and to its many analysts. All are now considering what the recent meltdown means -- the euphoric globalizers, few of whom are left; the tragic globalizers, who see the benefits of interdependence but worry about a great crash ahead; the managerial globalizers, who would like a better way of controlling the process; the critical globalizers, who are pushing for radical reform; and, of course, the antiglobalizers. Which global institutions might manage the international economy, and how? they all wonder. European leaders, for example, have called for a new Bretton Woods Conference to reconsider the architecture of the international financial and trading systems.
What kind of crisis is this, and what are its likely implications? Some crises are cathartic and push policymakers to take corrective measures; others, like the Great Depression, are radically destructive. Over recent decades, there have been blowouts at the financial center and storms at the periphery. After the meltdown in Latin America in the 1980s came a decade of stock-market and housing booms in the United States that eventually went bust. The Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 was also followed by a run on U.S. assets, causing a bubble (and the dot-com boom) that then burst. Is the latest financial collapse a first step on the road to a profound backlash against globalization? A decade ago, after the Asian financial crisis, Washington and various international financial institutions held up the U.S. system as a model to Asian governments. Today, it is Asia, especially China, that may be entitled to give Americans a lecture.
Martin Wolf, the Financial Times' chief economics commentator, has been a persistently insightful analyst. He has not forecast that financial globalization will necessarily end in disaster, but he has warned of its dangers and tried to address its shortfalls. Most recently, he has done so in Fixing Global Finance, an extremely helpful guide to the origins of today's problems and to
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