Review Essay

Mosque and State

The Future of Political Islam

In This Review

Islamic Exceptionalism
Islamic Exceptionalism
By Shadi Hamid
St. Martin's Press, 2016 320 pp. Purchase
Islamism: What It Means for the Middle East and the World
Islamism: What It Means for the Middle East and the World
By Tarek Osman
Yale University Press, 2016 328 pp. Purchase

In January 2015, after jihadists attacked the Paris offices of the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12 people, European leaders linked arms to lead a procession of millions through the French capital, chanting “Je suis Charlie” (I am Charlie) in an expression of solidarity with the victims and contempt for their killers. Muslims all over the world also condemned the attacks, as did a number of Islamist organizations, including perhaps the most influential one—the Egypt-based Muslim Brotherhood, which posted a statement on its English-language website denouncing the “criminal attack” and stating that “true Islam does not encourage violence.”

Not all of the group’s adherents approved of that message, however. A month after the killings, a Muslim Brother­hood activist in Turkey told Shadi Hamid, an expert on political Islam, that she disagreed with the organi­zation’s decision to issue the statement. Like many other mainstream Islamists, she opposed the Paris attack but felt that Islamists should refrain from loudly condemning it because few in the West had spoken out after Egyptian security forces massacred 800 Brotherhood mem­bers who were peacefully protesting in Cairo in August 2013. “Our blood is shed day and night and no one pays any attention,” she said. “Our blood is licit, but theirs isn’t. . . . The world’s balance is off.”

That sense of imbalance pervades Islamist organizations of all stripes. Perceived as aggressors, they see them­selves as victims; condemned as intolerant, they complain about intolerance of their views. What is indisputable is that even after 15 years during which the inter­section of politics and Islam has been a major theme in world affairs, Islamism remains poorly understood, especially in the West. Two recent books tackle the subject, primarily by considering the crises roiling the Middle East and examining Islam’s role in the turmoil. Both books succeed in explaining the dilemmas, paradoxes, and confusion facing political actors in the world’s most volatile region, although each author emphasizes different factors.

Hamid, an Egyptian American who

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